Terimler/Kısaltmalar - VODASOFT Çağrı Merkezi | Call Center Services


Vodasoft CCS, çağrı merkezi ve yakın alanalrdaki terimleri site ziyaretçilerinin kullanımına açmaktadır.
Özellikle çağrı merkezi terimleri, CEO'muz Zekeriya ARSLAN'ın "Adan Zye Çağrı Merkezi Dünyası" isimli kitabından alıntıdır. 
İnternet Terimleri +

1xRTT -- (Single Carrier (1x) Radio Transmission Technology)

A wireless communications protocol used for connections to networks by devices such as laptop computers. 1xRTT has the capability of providing data transfer speeds of up to 144 thousand bps. 1xRTT is a built on top of another widely used protocol, CDMA and is also called CMDA2000.

See also: bps, CDMA, Network, Protocol

Back to Index


ADN -- (Advanced Digital Network)

Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.

See also: bps, Leased Line

ADSL -- (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

A DSL line where the upload speed is different from the download speed. Usually the download speed is much greater.

See also: Download, DSL, SDSL, Upload

Anonymous FTP

See also: FTP


The most common web server (or HTTP server) software on the Internet. Apache is an open-source application originally created from a series of changes ("patches") made to a web server written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the same place the Mosiac web browser was created.

Apache is designed as a set of modules, enabling administrators to choose which features they wish to use and making it easy to add features to meet specific needs inlcuding handling protocols other than the web-standard HTTP.

See also: HTTP, mod_perl, Mosaic, Server


A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The common rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.

See also: HTML, Java

Application Server

Server software that manages one or more other pieces of software in a way that makes the managed software available over a network, usually to a Web server. By having a piece of software manage other software packages it is possible to use resources like memory and database access more efficiently than if each of the managed packages responded directly to requests.

See also: ASP, Server


A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. By 1999 Archie had been almost completely replaced by web-based search engines.

Back when FTP was the main way people moved files over the Internet archie was quite popular.

See also: FTP

ARPANet -- (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)

The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking to connect together computers that were each running different system so that people at one location could use computing resources from another location.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), Network, WAN

ASCII -- (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

This is the defacto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.

ASP -- (Application Service Provider)

A organization (usually a business) that runs one or more applications on their own servers and provides (usually for a fee) access to others. Common examples of services provided this way include web-based software such as Calendar systems, Human Resources tools (timesheets, benefits, etc.), and various applications to help groups collaborate on projects.

See also: Application Server, Server


An evolving protocol for syndication and sharing of content.

Atom is being developed as a succesor to and improvement over RSS and is more complex than RSS while offering support for additional features such digital signatures, geographic location of author, possibly security/encryption, licensing, etc.

Like RSS, Atom is an XML-based specification.

See also: RSS, XML

Back to Index



A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

See also: Network


How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second (bps.) A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

See also: Bit, bps, T-1


In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bitsit can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second).

See also: Bit, Modem

BBS -- (Bulletin Board System)

A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. In the early 1990's there were many thousands (millions?) of BBS?s around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like AOL gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.


Information consisting entirely of ones and zeros. Also, commonly used to refer to files that are not simply text files, e.g. images.


Binhex -- (BINary HEXadecimal)

A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.


Bit -- (Binary DigIT)

A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidthis usually measured in bits-per-second.

See also: Bandwidth, Bit, bps, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte

BITNET -- (Because It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork))

A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs®, a popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980's and early 1990's) BITNET machines were usually mainframes, often running IBM's MVS operating system. BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), Listserv ®, Network

Blog -- (weB LOG)

A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog.

Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominently.

It is common for blogs to be available as RSS feeds.

See also: Blogosphere or Blogsphere, RSS

Blogosphere or Blogsphere

The current state of all information available on blogs and/or the sub-culture of those who create and use blogs.

See also: Blog

bps -- (Bits-Per-Second)

A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per second.

See also: Bandwidth, Bit


Generally refers to connections to the Internet with much greater bandwidth than you can get with a modem. There is no specific definition of the speed of a "broadband" connection but in general any Internet connection using DSL or a via Cable-TV may be considered a broadband connection.

See also: Bandwidth, DSL, Modem


A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.

See also: Client, Server, URL, WWW

BTW -- (By The Way)

A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.

See also: IMHO


A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.

See also: Bit

Back to Index


CATP -- (Caffeine Access Transport Protocol)

Common method of moving caffeine across Wide Area Networks such as the Internet

CATP was first used at the Binary Cafe in Cybertown and quickly spread world-wide.

There are reported problems with short-circuits and rust and decaffinated beverages were not supported until version 1.5.3

See also: Internet (Upper case I), IRC, WAN

CDMA -- (Code Division Multiple Access)

A protocol for wireless data and voice communication, CMDA is widely used in cellphone networks, but also in many other data communications systems. CDMA uses a technique called "Spread Spectrum" whereby the data being transmitted is spread across multiple radio frequencies, making more efficent use of available radio spectrum. There are a number of additional protocols built on top of CDMA, such as 1xRTT (also called CMDA2000).

See also: 1xRTT, Protocol

Certificate Authority

An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections.

See also: SSL

CGI -- (Common Gateway Interface)

A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the ?CGI program?) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.

See also: Server, WWW


The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGIprograms are stored.

See also: CGI


A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. EachClient program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client.

See also: Browser, Client, Server


Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected network that belongs to another person or group. Usually this is done because the server owner wants their machine to be on a high-speed Internet connection and/or they do not want the security risks of having the server on thier own network.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), Network, Server


The most common meaning of "Cookie" on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server.

Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers' settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time.

Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online "shopping cart" information, user preferences, etc.

When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular users' requests.

Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been reached.

Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.

See also: Browser, Server

CSS -- (Cascading Style Sheet)

A standard for specifying the appearance of text and other elements. CSS was developed for use with HTML in Web pages but is also used in other situations, notably in applications built using XPFE. CSS is typically used to provide a single "library" of styles that are used over and over throughout a large number of related documents, as in a web site. A CSS file might specify that all numbered lists are to appear in italics. By changing that single specification the look of a large number of documents can be easily changed.

See also: HTML, Web page, XPFE


Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.

See also: Cyberspace


Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.

See also: Cyberpunk

Back to Index


DHCP -- (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

DHCP is a protocol by which a machine can obtain an IP number (and other network configuration information) from a server on the local network.

See also: IP Number, Network, Server

DHTML -- (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language)

DHTML refers to web pages that use a combination of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS to create features such as letting the user drag items around on the web page, some simple kinds of animation, and many more.

See also: CSS, HTML, JavaScript, Web page


The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regardsto the digital revolution.

DNS -- (Domain Name System)

The Domain Name System is the system that translates Internet domain names into IP numbers. A "DNS Server" is a server that performs this kind of translation.

See also: Domain Name, IP Number, Server

Domain Name

The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names:






can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine.

Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names (matisse.net in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.

See also: IP Number, TLD


Transferring data (usually a file) from a another computer to the computer you are are using. The opposite of upload.

See also: Upload

DSL -- (Digital Subscriber Line)

A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line (howeverr a DSL circuit is not a leased line.

A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.

Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions.

In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.

DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines.

See also: ADSL, Bandwidth, ISDN, Leased Line, SDSL

Back to Index


Email -- (Electronic Mail)

Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses.

See also: Listserv ®, SMTP


A very common method of networking computers in a LAN.

There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001 the standard type was "100-BaseT" which can handle up to about 100,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

See also: Bandwidth, FDDI, LAN


An intranet that is accesible to computers that are not hysically part of a companys' own private network, but that is not accessible to the general public, for example to allow vendors and business partners to access a company web site.

Often an intranet will make use of a Virtual Private Network. (VPN.)

See also: Intranet, Network, VPN

Back to Index


FAQ -- (Frequently Asked Questions)

FAQs are documents that list and answerthe most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over.

FDDI -- (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as 10-BaseTEthernet, about twice as fast as T-3).

See also: Ethernet, T-3


An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.

Fire Wall

A combination of hardware and software that separates a Network into two or more parts for security purposes.

See also: Network


Originally, "flame" meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the use of flowery language and flaming well was an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude.

See also: Flame War

Flame War

When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion of their positions. A heated exchange.

See also: Flame

FTP -- (File Transfer Protocol)

A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites.

FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp servers".

FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a text-only interface.

See also: Login, WWW

Back to Index



The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example America Online has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.

GIF -- (Graphic Interchange Format)

A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.

See also: JPEG, PNG


1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring.

See also: Byte


Invented at the University of Minnesota in 1993 just before the Web, gopher was a widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet.

Gopher was designed to be much easier to use than FTP, while still using a text-only interface.

Gopher is a Client and Server style program, whichrequires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while.

See also: Client, FTP, WWW

Back to Index



As used in reference to the World Wide Web, ?hit? means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 ?hits? would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.

See also: Browser, HTML, Server

Home Page (or Homepage)

Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. "Check out so-and-so's new Home Page."

See also: Browser, WWW


Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as SMTP (email) and HTTP (web).

See also: Network, SMTP

HTML -- (HyperText Markup Language)

The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear.

The "hyper" in Hypertext comes from the fact that in HTML you can specify that a block of text, or an image, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a "Web Browser".

HTML is loosely based on a more comprehensive system for markup called SGML.

See also: Browser, Hypertext, WWW

HTTP -- (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

The protocol for moving hypertextfiles across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program (such as Apache) on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW).

See also: Apache, Client, Hypertext, Server, WWW


Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

See also: HTML, HTTP

Back to Index


IMAP -- (Internet Message Access Protocol)

IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers.

Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc.

IMAP is defined in RFC 2060

See also: Client, Email, POP, RFC, Server

IMHO -- (In My Humble Opinion)

A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they areexpressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of many such shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums.

internet (Lower case i)

Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), Network

Internet (Upper case I)

The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's.

The Internet connects tens of thousands of independent networks into a vast global internet and is probably the largest Wide Area Network in the world.

See also: internet (Lower case i), Network, WAN


A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with extranet.

See also: Extranet, internet (Lower case i), Internet (Upper case I)

IP Number -- (Internet Protocol Number)

Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.

Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

See also: Domain Name, Server, TCP/IP

IPv4 -- (Internet Protocol, version 4)

The most widley used version of the Internet Protocol (the "IP" part of TCP/IP.)

IPv4 allows for a theoretical maximum of approximately four billion IP Numbers (technically 232), but the actual number is far less due to inefficiencies in the way blocks of numbers are handled by networks. The gradual adoption of IPv6 will solve this problem.

See also: IP Number, IPv6, Network, Protocol, TCP/IP

IPv6 -- (Internet Protocol, version 6)

The successor to IPv4. Already deployed in some cases and gradually spreading, IPv6 provides a huge number of available IP Numbers - over a sextillion addresses (theoretically 2128). IPv6 allows every device on the planet to have its own IP Number.

See also: IP Number, IPv4, Network, Protocol, TCP/IP

IRC -- (Internet Relay Chat)

Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.

See also: Server

ISDN -- (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Basically a way to move more dataover existing regular phone lines. ISDN is available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000or 64,000 bits-per-second.

Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also has ISDN.

See also: DSL

ISP -- (Internet Service Provider)

An institution that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money.

IT -- (Information Technology)

A very general term referring to the entire field of Information Technology - anything from computer hardware to programming to network management. Most medium and large size companies have IT Departments.

Back to Index



Java is a network-friendly programming language invented by Sun Microsystems.

Java is often used to build large, complex systems that involve several different computers interacting across networks, for example transaction processing systems.

Java is also used to create software with graphical user interfaces such as editors, audio players, web browsers, etc.

Java is also popular for creating programs that run in small electronic devicws, such as mobile telephones.

Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations,calculators, and other fancy tricks.

See also: Applet, JDK


JavaScript is a programming language that is mostly used in web pages, usually to add features that make the web page more interactive. When JavaScript is included in an HTML file it relies upon the browser to interpret the JavaScript. When JavaScript is combined with Cascading Style Sheets(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and later) the result is often called DHTML.

See also: HTML

JDK -- (Java Development Kit)

A software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debugJava applications and applets

See also: Applet, Java

JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.

See also: GIF, PNG

Back to Index



A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.

See also: Byte

Back to Index


LAN -- (Local Area Network)

A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.

See also: Network, VPN, WAN

Leased Line

Refers to line such as a telephone line or fiber-optic cable that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7-days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.

See also: DSL, ISDN


A widely used Open Source Unix-like operating system. Linux was first released by its inventor Linus Torvalds in 1991. There are versions of Linux for almost every available type of computer hardware from desktop machines to IBM mainframes. The inner workings of Linux are open and available for anyone to examine and change as long as they make their changes available to the public. This has resulted in thousands of people working on various aspects of Linux and adaptation of Linux for a huge variety of purposes, from servers to TV-recording boxes.

See also: Open Source Software, Unix

Listserv ®

The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is a registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc. Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet.

See also: BITNET, Internet (Upper case I), Maillist


Noun or a verb.

Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).

Verb: the act of connecting to a computer system by giving your credentials (usually your "username" and "password")

See also: Password

Back to Index



(or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.

See also: Email, Listserv ®


A million bytes. Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes.

See also: Byte, Kilobyte

Meta Tag

A specific kind of HTML tag that contains information not normally displayed to the user. Meta tags contan information about the page itself, hence the name ("meta" means "about this subject")

Typical uses of Meta tags are to include information for search engines to help them better categorize a page.

You can see the Meta tags in a page if you view the pages' source code.

See also: HTML, Search Engine, SEO

MIME -- (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

Originally a standard for defining the types of files attached to standard Internet mail messages. The MIME standard has come to be used in many situations where one cmputer programs needs to communicate with another program about what kind of file is being sent.

For example, HTML files have a MIME-type of text/html, JPEG files are image/jpeg, etc.

See also: HTML, JPEG


Generally speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource. For example, one site might create a library of software, and 5 other sites might maintain mirrors of that library.

See also: FTP, WWW

Modem -- (MOdulator, DEModulator)

A device that connects a computer to a phone line. A telephone for a computer. A modem allows a computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.

The maximum practical bandwidth using a modem over regular telephone lines is currently around 57,000 bps.

See also: Bandwidth, bps


An add-on for the Apache web server software, mod_perl makes it possible to use the Perl language to add new features for the Apache server, and to increase the speed of Perl applications by as much as 30 times.

See also: Apache

MOO -- (Mud, Object Oriented)

One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments.

See also: MUD


The first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows,and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic was licensed by several companies and used to create many other web browsers.

Mosaic was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, in Illinois, USA. The first version was released in late 1993.

See also: Browser, WWW

MUD -- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension)

A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all thatlies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact within their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively.

See also: MOO

MUSE -- (Multi-User Simulated Environment)

One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence.

See also: MUD

Back to Index



The etiquette on the Internet.


Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet,or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.


A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).

See also: Mosaic


Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.

See also: internet (Lower case i)


The name for discussion groups on USENET.

See also: USENET

NIC -- (Network Information Center)

Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet was the InterNIC, which was where most new domain names were registered until that process was decentralized to a number of private companies. Also means "Network Interface card", which is the card in a computer that you plug a network cable into.

See also: Domain Name, Network

NNTP -- (Network News Transport Protocol)

The protocol used by clientand server software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.

See also: Client, Server, TCP/IP


Any single computer connected to a network.

See also: Network

Back to Index


Open Content

Copyrighted information (such as this Glossary) that is made available by the copyright owner to the general public under license terms that allow reuse of the material, often with the requirement (as with this Glossary) that the re-user grant the public the same rights to the modified version that the re-user received from the copyright owner.

Information that is in the Public Domain might also be considered a form of Open Content.

See also: Open Source Software

Open Source Software

Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed.

See also: Open Content

Back to Index


Packet Switching

The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.

You might think of several caravans of trucks all using the same road system to carry materials.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), Router


A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be:


But don't use that one!

See also: Login

PDF -- (Portable Document Format)

A file format designed to enable printing and viewing of documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used, so a PDF document should look the same on Windows, Macintosh, linux, OS/2, etc. The PDF format is based on the widely used Postcript document-description language. Both PDF and Postscript were developed by the Adobe Corporation.

Perl -- (Practical Extraction and Report Language)

Perl is a programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications.

During the 1990s it became the de-facto standard for creating CGI programs. Perl is known for providing many ways to accomplish the same task, with "there's more than one way to do it" being something of a motto in the Perl community.

Because it is so easy to perform simple tasks in Perl it is often used by people with little or no formal programming training, and because Perl provides many sophisticated features it is often used by professionals for creating complex data-processing software, including the "server-side" of large web sites. Perl does not provide significant support for creating programs with a graphical user interface.

See also: CGI, Java, JavaScript, PHP, Website

PHP -- (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)

PHP is a programming language used almost exclusively for creating software that is part of a web site. The PHP language is designed to be intermingled with the HTML that is used to create web pages. Unlike HTML, the PHP code is read and processed by the web server software (HTML is read and processed by the web browser software.)

See also: Browser, HTML, JavaScript, Perl, Server, Web page, Website


To check if a server is running. From the sound that a sonar systems makes in movies, you know, when they are searching for a submarine.


A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.

See also: Browser, Server

PNG -- (Portable Network Graphics)

PNG is a graphics format specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web. PNG enable compression of images without any loss of quality, including high-resolution images. Another important feature of PNG is that anyone may create software that works with PNG images without paying any fees - the PNG standard is free of any licensing costs.

See also: GIF, JPEG

podcasting or pod-casting

A form of audio broadcasting using the Internet, podcasting takes its name from a combination of "iPod" and broadcasting. iPod is the immensely popular digital audio player made by Apple computer, but podcasting does not actually require the use of an iPod.

Podcasting involves making one or more audio files available as "enclosures" in an RSS feed. A pod-caster creates a list of music, and/or other sound files (such as recorded poetry, or "talk radio" material) and makes that list available in the RSS 2.0 format. The list can then be obtained by other people using various podcast "retriever" software which read the feed and makes the audio files available to digital audio devices (including, but not limited to iPods) where users may then listen to them at their convenience.

See also: RSS

POP -- (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol)

Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.

A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network.

A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail. Another protocol called IMAP is replacing POP for email.

See also: Client, Email, IMAP, ISP, Server


3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.

On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form:


This shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70).

Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.

See also: URL


Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the Web.


A single message entered into a network communications system.

PPP -- (Point to Point Protocol)

The most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over regular phone lines.

Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IPconnections and thus be really and truly on the Internet.

See also: Modem, SLIP, TCP/IP


On the Internet "protocol" usually refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems. For example the HTTP protocol defines the format for communication between web browsers and web servers, the IMAP protocol defines the format for communication between IMAP email servers and clients, and the SSL protocol defines a format for encrypted communications over the Internet.

Virtually all Internet protocls are defined in RFC documents.


Proxy Server

A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks

See also: Client, HTTP, LAN, Network, Server

PSTN -- (Public Switched Telephone Network)

The regular old-fashioned telephone system.

Back to Index


RDF -- (Resource Definition Framework)

A set of rules (a sort of language) for creating descriptions of information, especially information available on the World Wide Web. RDF could be used to describe a collection of books, or artists, or a collection of web pages as in the RSS data format which uses RDF to create machine-readable summaries of web sites.

RDF is also used in XPFE applications to define the relationships between different collections of elements, for example RDF could be used to define the relationship between the data in a database and the way that data is displayed to a user.

See also: RSS, Web page, WWW, XML, XPFE, XUL

RFC -- (Request For Comments)

The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org/), a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822.


A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.

See also: Network, Packet Switching

RSS -- (Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication)

A commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content, originally developed to facilitate the syndication of news articles, now widely used to share the contents of blogs.

RSS is an XML-based summary of a web site, usually used for syndication and other kinds of content-sharing.

There are RSS "feeds" which are sources of RSS information about web sites, and RSS "readers" which read RSS feeds and display their content to users.

RSS is being overtaken by a newer, more complex protocol called Atom.

See also: Atom, Blog, RDF, XML

RTSP -- (Real Time Streaming Protocol)

RTSP is an official Internet standard (RFC 2326) for delivering and receiving streams of data such as audio and video.

The standard allows for both real-time ("live") streams of data and streams from stored data.

See also: RFC

Back to Index


SDSL -- (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

A version of DSL where the upload speeds and download speeds are the same.

See also: ADSL, DSL

Search Engine

A (usually web-based) system for searching the information available on the Web.

Some search engines work by automatically searching the contents of other systems and creating a database of the results. Other search engines contains only material manually approved for inclusion in a database, and some combine the two approaches.

See also: WWW

Security Certificate

A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.

See also: SSL

SEO -- (Search Engine Optimization)

The practice of designing web pages so that they rank as high as possible in search results from search engines.

There is "good" SEO and "bad" SEO. Good SEO involves making the web page clearly describe its subject, making sure it contains truly useful information, including accurate information in Meta tags, and arranging for other web sites to make links to the page. Bad SEO involves attempting to deceive people into believing the page is more relevant than it truly is by doing things like adding inaccurate Meta tags to the page.

See also: Meta Tag, Search Engine


A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g. "Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out."

A single server machine can (and often does) have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.

Sometimes server software is designed so that additional capabilities can be added to the main program by adding small programs known as servlets.

See also: Client, Network, Servlet


A small computer program designed to be add capabilities to a larger piece of server software.

Common examples are "Java servlets", which are small programs written in the Java language and which are added to a web server. Typically a web server that uses Java servlets will have many of them, each one designed to handle a very specific situation, for example one servlet will handle adding items to a "shopping cart", while a different servlet will handle deleting items from the "shopping cart."

See also: Java, Server, Web

SLIP -- (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

A standard that was popular in the early 1990's for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a realInternet site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP.

See also: PPP

SMDS -- (Switched Multimegabit Data Service)

A standard for very high-speed data transfer.

SMTP -- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet.

SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later RFC's.

See also: Email, RFC, Server

SNMP -- (Simple Network Management Protocol)

A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.

SNMP is defined in RFC 1089

See also: Network, RFC, Router, TCP/IP

SOAP -- (Simple Object Access Protocol)

A protocol for client-server communication that sends and receives information "on top of" HTTP. The data sent and received is in a particular XML format specifically designed for use with SOAP. SOAP is similar to the XMLRPC protocol except that SOAP provides for more sophisticated handling of complex data being sent between a client and a server. SOAP actually grew from the work that created XMLRPC.

Microsoft's ".NET" system is largely based on SOAP.

See also: Client, HTTP, Protocol, Server, XML, XMLRPC

Spam (or Spamming)

An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn?t ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone?s low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam® is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)

See also: Maillist, USENET


A somewhat vague term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users' knowledge or consent.

Most spyware tries to get the user to view advertising and/or particular web pages. Some spyware also sends information about the user to another machine over the Internet.

Spyware is usually installed without a users' knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.

See also: Download, Web page

SQL -- (Structured Query Language)

A specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

A example of an SQL statement is:

    SELECT name,email FROM people_table WHERE contry='uk'

SSL -- (Secure Socket Layer)

A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.

Sysop -- (System Operator)

Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.

Back to Index



A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LANs to theInternet.

See also: Bit, Internet (Upper case I), LAN, Leased Line, Megabyte


A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motionvideo.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), LAN, Leased Line

TCP/IP -- (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now included with every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.

See also: Internet (Upper case I), IPv4, IPv6, Packet Switching, Unix


The command and program used to login from one Internet siteto another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.

See also: Host, Login


1000 gigabytes.

See also: Gigabyte


A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server

A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modemson one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine onthe other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering thecalls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Mostterminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connectedto the Internet.

TLD -- (Top Level Domain)

The last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name. For example in the domain name www.matisse.net ".net" is the Top Level Domain.

There are a large number of TLD's, for example .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .net, .org, and a collection of two-letter TLD's corresponding to the standard two-letter country codes, for example, .us, .ca, .jp, etc.

See also: Domain Name

Trojan Horse

A computer program is either hidden inside another program or that masquerades as something it is not in order to trick potential users into running it. For example a program that appears to be a game or image file but in reality performs some other function. The term "Trojan Horse" comes from a possibly mythical ruse of war used by the Greeks sometime between 1500 and 1200 B.C.

A Trojan Horse computer program may spread itself by sending copies of itself from the host computer to other computers, but unlike a virus it will (usually) not infect other programs.

See also: Virus, Worm

Back to Index


UDP -- (User Datagram Protocol)

One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a "stateless" protocol in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of packets received.

See also: Packet Switching, TCP/IP


A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). Unix is d

Satış Terimleri +


    like-kind, tax-deferred exchanges of property held for productive use in a business or for investment, under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.


    a financial statement filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission by a company, regarding its financial performance. This form is used for quarterly reports under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. A quarterly report on this form must be filed within 45 days after the end of each of the first three fiscal quarters of each fiscal year.


    deal in which the founders of the company contribute assets in exchange for shares of a corporation, upon its formation under Section 351 of the Internal Revenue Code. (Source: Andrew Sherman)

401 (K) PLAN

    company-sponsored retirement program whereby the amount withheld, often matched by the employer, is not taxed until it is withdrawn from the plan.


    a form filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission containing certain information about a company that must be disclosed to the public before the company can offer stock for sale.


    also referred to as a Transit Routing Number. Directs electronic ACH deposits to the proper bank institution.


    a deduction in the amount of money owed.


    the skill and aptitude that an employee needs in order to perform successfully the various tasks associated with a job.


    the price of a stock or bond that is valued at a price higher than its face amount.


    the temporary unavailability of an employee to report to work.


    a property owner who does not reside on his property. The management of the property is usually left in the hands of a caretaker.


    a document that summarizes the major points of another document.


    an attorney's summary compilation of the history of the ownership of a piece of real property in order to determine who holds the present title.


    any depreciation method that produces depreciation at a greater rate in the early years of an asset's life.


    a clause in a contract that can require payment in full. Usually brought about by an event such as a missed payment.


    a statement in a contract that stipulates the the entire balance is due immediately in the event that a breach of a contract occurred, such as the debtors failure to make payment when due.


    the process of inputting or retrieving data from a computer.


    the time interval at which computer data is requested from a storage device and the moment that delivery process starts.


    a record of all the debits and credits chronologically posted to a ledger showing how each transaction affects a particular phase of a business. Entries are usually stated in monetary figures and reflect the current balances, if any.


    a person engaged in accounting work.


    the process of identifying, measuring, recording and communicating financial information about a business or organization. Accounting information can be a helpful aid in the decision making process.


    money owed by a person or company. Accounts payable are carried in the current liabilities section of the firm's balance sheet.


    money due from customers carried as "open book" accounts. Carried in the current-assets section of the firm's balance sheet.


    an accounting system in which income and expenses are recorded when an obligation is made rather than when money is received or paid.


    to periodically grow or accumulate.


    expenses that have been accumulated, but have not yet been paid.


    interest that has been earned but has not yet been paid.


    taxes that have been accumulated, but have not yet been paid.


    the paperless funds transfer system maintained by the Federal Reserve or other entities that have networks to exchange electronic funds transfer items.


    method of judging a firm's ability to meet current debt quickly. The formula: total cash + receivables = current liabilities. One common standard ratio is one to one (1:1).


    any bank, financial institution, and public or private company that maintains a Seller's credit card processing relationship and receives all transactions from the Seller to be distributed to the credit card issuing banks.


    system operated by an acquirer for the purpose of providing electronic commerce services to merchants who interface with the acquirer for authorizing and capturing transactions.


    the obtainment of control, possession or ownership of a private portfolio company by an operating company or conglomerate.


    a written statement that gives evidence of freedom from a financial obligation or debt.


    affecting all concerned in an equal manner.


    a Latin word meaning "for this." An ad hoc group is formed to address a particular concern or for one purpose only.


    a supplement to a written document.


    a service provided in which the Seller verifies the cardholder's address with the Issuing Bank. Address Verification is not a guarantee that a transaction is valid.


    a pre-printed contract that usually favors the presenting party, usually with nonnegotiable terms.


    A debit or credit to a Cardholder or Seller account to correct a transaction error.


    a group of people who make the management decisions in an organization.


    the expenses incurred in carrying out the activities listed in the management and organization section of the business plan.


    (1) a loan given with the expectation of repayment. (2) a payment made prior to the due date. (3) to rise to a higher level, such as a promotion.


    communicating the features and benefits of your product/service through the use of radio, television, print and other media.


    a business model in which a company makes money by charging advertisers for space (for example, a magazine or Web site) or time (as in radio or TV).


    a group of outside experts, typically three to six, recruited by entrepreneurs to provide regular input and suggestions to management. Many small companies use an advisory board in place of a board of directors with outsiders, so as to avoid liability issues.


    a company controlled by or associated with another company. In some cases, if the affiliated companies are small, they may share the same members of management.


    a type of franchise in which franchises ally themselves with similar ventures. Many real estate companies are organized this way.


    this is an organization like an industry trade association, chamber of commerce, or other group of entrepreneurs with common interests.


    the steps taken by companies to eliminate the barriers of discrimination that prevent equal opportunity employment to all minorities.


    trading activity in a security immediately after its initial offering to the public.


    any negative employment practices directed against an individual on the basis of age.


    a federal law which bans companies with 20 or more employees from discriminating against people who are age 40 or older.


    an outline or list of items to be addressed during a meeting.


    a person with the authority to act for or in place of another person.


    a group of items gathered haphazardly, such as an agglomeration of assets.


    (1) an inventory of accounts receivable classified by the debt's age; (2) a method of estimating bad-debt losses by aging the accounts and then assigning a probability of collection to each classification. For example, accounts aged more than six months might be assumed to be worthless, while those more than 90 days delinquent might be assumed to be worth only 50 cents on the dollar.


    a mutual understanding between two or more parties. This may or may not constitute a contract.


    the activity of farming as a major economic force. Included in this category would be the production, manufacture, storage and distribution of farm equipment, supplies, and commodities.


    (1) a reduction from a stated price; (2) a share of money allocated for a specific purpose.


    the second largest stock exchange in the United States.


    a federal law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities.


    (1) the process of liquidating a debt through installment payments; (2) prorating expenditures over time in order to write them off.


    a large, well-known store in a shopping mall; considered by developers and merchants to be an attraction to draw customers. The presence of such an anchor increases the market potential for other businesses and makes adjacent locations more desirable for entrepreneurs. Malls without powerful anchor stores encounter financial difficulty.


    a private investor who often has non-monetary motives for investing as well as the usual financial ones.


    start-up money provided to entrepreneurs by friends, family or wealthy individuals whose motives may be non-monetary as well as financial.


    the balance of the business' proceeds at the end of every year after all direct, operating, interest and tax expenses are paid.


    an interest rate that states the true cost of obtaining credit for the duration of the loan.


    a detailed document prepared by a company at the end of its reporting year. This report usually contains various financial reports, information on company officers and directors, as well as an analysis on past and future operations of the company.


    money, or the promise of money, received from providing a company's products and services as accomplished during the period of a year.


    an investment that produces a steady flow of cash for a specific period of time.


    laws formulated to protect trade and commerce from unlawful or unfair business practices. These laws also attempt to curb monopolistic tendencies or to minimize the power stemming from monopolies.


    an addition to the end of a document. In a business or feasibility plan, it may include copies of product/service information, legal agreements, resumes of principal owners, etc.


    one who is seeking employment.


    (1) a form to be filled out by a job candidate when seeking employment; (2) the use of computer-based programs to process data for specific purposes.


    a written document by a professional appraiser estimating the value or quality of an asset as of a given date.


    to estimate the value or determine the cost of an item.


    an increase in the value of an asset.


    money that has been set aside by formal action to pay some known or anticipated costs.


    used to describe a situation where either a temporary or long-term discrepancy in value has emerged--for example, a similar commodity that is priced higher in one locale compared with another. Those who ferret out such discrepancies in value, and realize profits by acting on them, are often called "arbitragers." For example, an investor who borrows Japanese Yen at a cost of 1\%, then purchases U.S. Treasury notes paying 5\%, is arbitraging between Japan's very low cost of capital and the much higher yields available for invested capital in the U.S.


    a form of conflict resolution in which a neutral third party hears both parties' arguments and renders a decision.


    a person who loves to talk about new ventures and what he/she plans to do about them, but never does anything; he/she is all talk and no action.


    monies that is overdue and is unpaid at the date of maturity.


    also known as the quoted ask. This is the price in which an investor can purchase shares of stock.


    the price an owner places on an asset he is willing to sell. The asking price is also viewed as a benchmark price that the buyer and seller can begin negotiations at since an agreed upon price has yet to be reached.


    an official estimate of the value of something for the purpose of computing property tax.


    an item which has value and is owned by an individual or corporation.


    the loaning of money on the value of assets offered as security. The lender is protected from loss by the liquidation value of the assets.


    equals your company's total sales divided by its total assets. This ratio measures the overall efficiency with which your company employs its assets to produce sales. The higher the measure, the more efficient the business model.


    financing an enterprise by using its hard assets for collateral to acquire a loan of sufficient size with which to finance operations. Widely used in leveraged buyouts (LBOs).


    to transfer a right or interest to another person.


    a person to whom an assignment is made or to whom a transfer of rights or property is given.


    the transfer of property from one person (the assignor) to another person (the assignee). Items other than property can be assigned, such as sales contracts, mortgages, leases and options.


    the person with authority to assign to another person (the assignee).


    any entity formed to administer and promote credit cards, including but not limited to MasterCard International®, VISA®, U.S.A., or Visa International®, that are licensing and regulatory agencies for credit card activities.


    preconceived notices or hunches on which management bases reasonable financial projections or other probable developments. Usually found in the financial section of the business plan.


    a person who has the power to act for another person in business or legal matters.


    a type of agency relationship where a competent and disinterested person is authorized by another person to act in his or her behalf. Decisions made by the attorney in fact are legally binding on the principal.


    a reduction in the number of employees through retirement, resignation or death.


    an employment policy that allows employees and employers to terminate the working relationship at any time.


    to examine an individual's or organization's records in an attempt to verify accuracy and legal compliance.


    the published results of a company's financial examination that has been conducted by an auditor, usually a certified public accountant.


    a person who is qualified to examine and verify accounts.


    process that seeks to validate identity (merchants and cardholders) or to prove the integrity of a transaction. Authentication in public key systems uses digital signatures.


    approval of a bankcard transaction by the Card-issuing banks or approved independent service providers, for a specified dollar amount. An authorization indicates only the availability of the card member's credit limit at the time the authorization is requested.


    a machine that is able to process a variety of monetary related transactions between a customer and a depository institution.


    measures the rate of change in your company's annual sales. Research has linked business growth to higher survival rates, greater levels of market share, improved operating efficiencies, higher levels of profitability, and enhanced net worth.


    the estimated rate at which your total sales change (increasing or decreasing) from year to year.


    the average amount of money that a customer keeps on deposit over a specific time frame; calculated by adding the daily balances of an account over a given length of time and dividing it by the number of days covered.


    The arithmetic mean of the internal rates of return.


    (1) a final decision that is rendered in favor of one party; (2) something that is given on the basis of merit or need.






    administrative functions that support the processing of online transactions such as e-mail confirmations, shipping calculation, tax calculation, packing slip creation and report generation.


    part of an order that was not filled when the initial shipment was made. Back orders are usually shipped when the items become available without the customer having to place a reorder.


    wages that an employee is entitled to when the employer is found to be in violation of standard employment practices.


    placing a date on a document that is prior to the date the document is actually drawn up.


    a data processing company that contracts with Acquirers to provide communication and processing systems that connect with the interchange systems for clearing and settlement services on behalf of those Acquirers. (In some cases the Acquirer may act as its own back-end processor.)


    a collection of customer orders that have not been completed.


    to duplicate an item in the event the original is damaged or destroyed.


    standby or alternate components in a computer processing system that can be used in case of loss or damage to the primary component.


    the result of a company or individual being late or defaulting on bill payment.


    money that is still owed on an account and is past due.


    a clause in a contract that allows a party to get out of the contract.


    an accounting statement showing the financial condition of a company at a point in time; present assets, liabilities, and net worth. Basic equation: assets = liabilities + net worth.


    a venture fund investment strategy which includes investment in portfolio companies at a variety of stages of development (Seed, Early Stage, Later Stage, Leveraged Buyouts).


    the width of a telecommunications channel. The amount of bandwidth you need depends on the application: a Web page made up mostly of text doesn't require much bandwidth, but multimedia-rich Web pages with lots of graphics require more bandwidth. These types of pages generally take longer to appear on your monitor.


    a place of business for keeping, lending, exchanging and issuing money.


    a printed statement of a customer's account regularly provided by the bank.


    any valid card issued by a Card Association or other card-issuing organization that is presented in payment for goods and services or to obtain cash advances.


    usually refers to an officer of the bank who is responsible for bank activities.


    a corporation that owns or controls the voting stock in one or more operating banks.


    a person or business that is unable to meet its financial obligations and a court decree has declared the person or business insolvent. The person or business comes under the administration of the bankruptcy laws for the benefit of the creditors.


    a voluntary or involuntary state in which one is unable to meet financial obligations as they become due and so a court has declared.


    a form of advertising used online. If interested, users can click on a banner ad and be directly linked to the advertiser's Web site.


    an investment strategy in which a portfolio consist of securities whose maturities are concentrated at two extremes. For example, a portfolio might consist of half cash and half twenty-year bonds.


    the exchange of one commodity for another without the exchange of money.


    an agreement to exchange goods for services directly without money as a medium of exchange. A great tool for the entrepreneur.


    the rate of pay for a standard work period excluding any additional pay received from overtime, bonuses or other premiums.


    (1) a price assigned to all property by the IRS (Internal Revenue Service) for taxing purposes. It is usually determined by taking the purchase price of an asset, plus any capital improvement made to the asset and minus the accumulated depreciation; (2) Securities also have a basis which is determined by the price an investor pays for the security plus any other incremental fees. The basis is then used to determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is eventually sold.


    equals one one-hundredth of one percent. Basis points are used to explain changes in interest percentages. For example, an interest rate of 7 percent is fifty basis points greater than an interest rate of 6.5 percent. Basis points are also the smallest measure used for quoting yields in the bond market.


    the transmission speed for data, equal to one bit per second.


    a nonprofit association of local businesses that attempts to control unethical business practices. Consumer information is available through the association.


    a trend in the market in which prices are going down.


    comparison of the death of a venture to that of a goldfish; going bankrupt.


    when a security is issued at a price that is below the monetary figure printed on the face of the document; sometimes referred to as a discount.


    a person for whose benefit a will, trust, insurance policy or contract is established.


    (1) referring to the solutions offered to customers through a company's products/services; (2) the reason customers choose a product/service, because of the advantages they will receive.


    derived from golfing protocol, which mandates that once a bet is made before the match begins on the first tee box, it is not good form to beg for adjustment when it goes badly against you. Refers to the importance of making firm agreements between business associates at the beginning of the relationship. It is exceedingly difficult to renegotiate deals down the line. Moreover, vague understandings of one's deal can prove illusory later. Don't wander into deals with only a vague understanding of the terms.


    an offer of money in exchange for an item that is for sale.


    a price offered by a prospective buyer to begin the negotiation process of buying a security.


    another name for the New York Stock Exchange located on Wall Street in New York City. It is also known as the Exchange and is the oldest in the United States.


    merchandise that is large in size and fairly expensive, i.e. car.


    written document, a receipt, given by a transportation company, showing the name of the shipper and the receiver and itemizing the goods shipped.


    a written agreement stating the terms by which ownership of goods is transferred to another party.


    the 6-digit range of numbers assigned by the Federal Bureau of Standards and used by card companies to identify their financial transactions. The Discover® range begins with '6' (6xxxxx), the MasterCard® range begins with '5' (5xxxxx), and the Visa® range begins with '4' (4xxxxx).


    an agreement, secured by the exchange of earnest money, between a buyer and a seller to show good faith in wanting to complete the purchase of a property. A binder reserves the right to purchase real estate upon stated terms for a specified period of time. The amount of earnest money deposited is forfeited if the buyer changes his mind unless explicitly stated in the binder that it will be refunded.


    the industrial use of living organisms or biological techniques developed through basic research.


    the fundamental informational building block used by all computers. A bit is a single character in a binary number.


    help-wanted ads in which the employer is not identified.


    a slang term referring to investors who suffer a huge financial loss when the stock market takes a rapid decline.


    a stock issued by a well-established company that usually maintains a high public confidence in its worth and stability.


    a statute restricting business activity on Sundays.


    claims referring to future business profits that are greatly exaggerated or even nonexistent.


    laws regulating security sales designed to eliminate fraud. Common term for state laws that regulate the sale of securities in the state.


    refers to people who are particularly adept at selling deals that are either illegal or should be. They have little benefit to the purchaser.


    a term referring to a class of wage earners whose duties are centered towards production and maintenance.


    a group of outside experts, typically three to six, recruited by entrepreneurs to provide regular input and suggestions to management. Many small companies use an advisory board in place of a board of directors with outsiders, so as to avoid liability issues.


    the people elected by stockholders of a corporation who are responsible to that group for overseeing the overall direction and policy of the company.


    legal clauses routinely included in all contracts that, while important, have little to do with the actual substance of the contract.


    a form of interest-bearing note used by corporations to borrow on a long-term basis.


    incentives given to employees in addition to base compensation. Can be in the form of a cash award or a nonmonetary form (gifts, extra vacation time, etc.)


    the balance of the inventory account after all incoming inventory is added and the cost of outgoing goods is subtracted. This type of perpetual inventory system is usually verified annually by taking a physical inventory and reconciling any discrepancies.


    the value of an asset as reflected in the books of the company owning the item.


    a person who records the accounts or transactions of a business in a general ledger.


    a period when business expands and the economy experiences a period of rapid growth and rising prices. During such a period, there is increased demand for goods and services and unemployment rates fall.


    the process of activating a computer.


    when a company uses internal methods to generate money to be used for a proposed project.


    anything that halts the progress or flow of an activity, process or operation in an organization.


    a situation in the securities market where the prices of securities fall very rapidly and the supply is higher than the demand. If the drop in prices is very extreme, the result can be an atmosphere of panic.


    refers to the amount of money an enterprise has earned in any given period after all extraordinary items, special charges and credits, and write offs are taken into account.


    refers to the amount of money an enterprise has earned in any given period after all extraordinary items, special charges, credits and write offs are taken into account.


    a small shop or company that specializes in a particular business or offers limited services.


    an agreement between two or more parties to not do business with a third party. A boycott usually takes the form of a union and its members applying pressure on an employer to change some business practice.


    a management technique used to foster ideas, solve problems, set goals, establish priorities, and make assignments for their accomplishments.


    a mark or symbol placed on an item or a group of products to differentiate them from other competitors' products.


    the process of developing and shaping the public image of a product, service or enterprise.


    (1) the breaking of a promise made to fulfill an obligation; (2) a violation of one's duty to carry out a contractual responsibility.


    a means of determining the quantity that has to be sold at a given price so that revenues will equal cost. Break-even point in units = total fixed cost / (unit price - unit variable cost)


    the level of sales at which total revenue equals total costs incurred; the point at which the venture is meeting expenses with no profit, no loss.


    establishing a level of pricing that will enable a company to break even.


    short-term, temporary financing used until permanent financing can be secured.


    a business (such as a real estate, stock or commodities firm) that trades on behalf of clients in exchange for a commission on transactions.


    software that allows user to access Web sites.


    an estimate of the amount of money to be received and spent during a certain time period.


    program error that results in malfunctioning computer software.


    an easement allowed a certain distance from the road within which no construction may occur. This easement may be spelled out in the original plat of the subdivision, in the restrictive convenants or in the building codes and zoning ordinances.


    limitations placed on contractors and developers by public or private zoning acts. These limitations may dictate the type or size of buildings and improvements that can be carried out as well as what kind of businesses can operate in a certain area.


    descriptive term applied to a company that from its earliest stages was intended to be sold quickly.


    large quantities. Companies usually buy in bulk to realize a cost savings.


    a reduction in the amount charged when purchases are made in large quantities or multiple purchases.


    a trend in the market in which prices are going up.


    the obligation of a party to prove or disprove certain facts.


    the speed (per day, month or year) at which an unprofitable start-up company spends the money invested in it.


    as products and services for both external and internal customers are developed, the impact upon the business should be considered; for example, changes in the quantity and/or quality of human resources and facilities needed in operations and support; impact upon quality and service to customers; and estimates of the financial cost/savings.


    wealthy individuals, friends, or family who provide start-up funds to entrepreneurs for financial as well as non-monetary motives.


    a person/agent who buys and sells businesses for other people.


    the moral obligation placed on business leaders in a community to be honest and fair in their dealings with customers.


    a permit or certification that local and state governments require businesses to obtain and post. Obtaining a license may merely require the payment of a fee to do business; in other cases, the proprietor may have to pass a test that certifies he or she is competent to perform certain services. Some licenses limit the number of businesses that can provide certain goods or services.


    the method by which an organization uses its resources to deliver value to customers while maximizing profits and growth for itself.


    the unique outlook an entrepreneur, owner, or manager takes towards the conduct of business. Business philosophy determines, for example, the extent to which customer service takes precedence over hitting profit targets, whether employees are encouraged to take initiative or not, whether innovation is encouraged or resented. Entrepreneurs can share many business practices, for example accounting and financial systems, marketing strategies and the like, and yet differ considerably in their business or management philosophy.


    a well researched and ever changing document that provides direction and focus for both the day-to-day operations and the future growth of the business. A good business plan will include components covering management, the product and/or service, a marketing plan, financials, operations and control systems, and a growth plan and exit strategy.


    a written document proposing terms for a business relationship, such as a vendor, supplier, or partner arrangement.


    describes companies that sell to other companies rather than to individual consumers.


    describes companies that sell to individual consumers.


    a type of mortgage agreement made to the borrower by someone other than the mortgage holder, such as a builder or a developer. The agreement involves the lender paying part of the interest for the first couple of years on the loan. This serves to lower the payments until the subsidy expires. Some builders feel this is an incentive to sell houses that might otherwise remain on the market unsold.


    a person whose work is purchasing merchandise for resale.


    a market in which the supply of goods is greater than the demand. The prices in such a market tend to be lower or falling because the buyers can sometimes dictate the terms of the sales and set the prices.


    to purchase at least a controlling interest of a company's stock in order to assume control of that company's assets and operations. Often such a move involves purchasing an entire small company. A leveraged buyout occurs when the funds used to make the purchase are with borrowed money.


    (1) a means of protecting principal parties in a venture from undue financial loss should the personal and/or business relationships among the founders or investors for some reason disintegrate, often included in buy-sell agreements. Saves aggravation, legal expense, goodwill of involved parties; (2) a wise provision inserted into agreements between private investors and entrepreneurs that allows them to get rid of troublesome investors.


    contracts between associates that set the terms and conditions by which one or more of the associates can buy out one or more of the other associates.


    rules under which a corporation is governed. These rules can be amended as provided by state law and the bylaws. Rules and regulations under which a board of directors operate a corporation.


    a secondary product that is produced in addition to the primary product.


    the smallest storage unit in main memory or secondary storage. Usually consists of eight bits.


    a business organization in which the owners are taxed separately from the business.


    any purchases made in which the item(s) needs to be paid for when delivered.


    a device that receives and transmits data over a cable television system.


    each worker can pick and choose among different benefit options in order to select the combination that best fits their personal needs. Also know as flexible benefits.


    the option to purchase shares of stock if the price rises above a designated price within a specified period of time.


    a provision that entitles an organization to repurchase its bonds or preferred stock from their holders at stated prices over a specified period.


    a follow-up technique used by salesmen to induce a potential customer to purchase their product.


    a fee imposed for breaking a service contract.


    when sales for a company's new product or service come in part or whole from buyers who would have bought an existing product or service; thus, the new product or service is producing its sales at the expense of an existing one.


    a term commonly used as a synonym for cash. Capital goods: material assets, equipment, machinery or tools. Capital funds: cash assets.


    an item purchased for internal use rather than resale.


    any hard asset, including such items as buildings, land, operating equipment, fixtures, computers, etc.


    money spent for the purchase or expansion of plant or equipment.


    short- or long-term profits from the sale of assets.


    a term applied to investment capital used to purchase capital items like manufacturing equipment and real estate.


    the amount of capital available to a management team for venture investments.


    an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.


    the total par value of all stock in addition to the face amount of all outstanding bonds and loans. Also, the mathematical procedure used to determine the value of a property based on the rate of return on investments.


    (1) to put money into a project; (2)in accounting, to change an item from an expense to a fixed asset, therefore adding an item to an asset account; (3) to turn a situation into one's economic gain.


    transaction sent after the merchant has shipped the goods. This transaction triggers the movement of funds from the issuer to the acquirer and then from the acquirer to the merchant's bank account.


    any entity whose members issue credit or debit cards or acquire card payment transactions on behalf of their customers.


    a person or entity that is issued a credit or debit account that is accessed through the use of a card.


    the sequence of jobs occupied by a person through the course of his or her lifetime.


    the logical and possible sequence of jobs that a person should hold in order to achieve their career objectives.


    premium rates charged on overdue accounts.


    cost incurred from storage of inventory.


    a group of independent business organizations that band together in an attempt to limit competition by influencing prices, production and marketing.


    a benefit or group of benefits administered by a third party company.


    the terms of sale when the buyer must pay cash when he picks up the merchandise. Credit terms are not accepted and delivery services are usually not available.


    an accounting method that immediately records the receipt of cash or the expense for goods and services. This is not an accepted method of bookkeeping for publicly held companies.


    a product or service that sells very well and has a low cost. The name implies the relative ease with which cash is obtained--like milking a cow.


    a discount given to the buyer as an incentive to render immediate payment or payment within a specific time frame.


    all short term investments that are easily convertible into cash. Two such liquid investments include treasury bills and bankers acceptances.


    the most important consideration of business survival. The measurement of the differences between the actual cash received by a firm and its actual cash expenditures. Only the flow of cash is measured. Noncash transactions such as depreciation, amortization, credit sales and purchases on account are ignored.


    a term applied to any purchases which need to be paid for when delivered.


    the amount an insurance company would pay the policyholder during his or her lifetime when the life insurance policy is terminated. Also known as "cashing in."


    a forecast of the cash flow for a period of time in the future. Sometimes called a cash budget.


    a phrase meaning "let the buyer beware." A situation where the buyer purchases an item at his own risk and the seller is under no obligation to reveal any defects. Items purchased are usually "AS IS" and are not returnable and have no warranty available.


    an optical disk that has data encoded on it.


    one type of technology used in the wireless phone service.


    a buying approach whereby all purchasing of goods is done through a main or central office. Shipment of ordered goods is usually made directly to the store for which it was ordered, or through a distribution center which repackages the order for the individual stores.


    a special kind of digitally signed message that contains information about a public key and the owner of a public key. A real world equivalent would be a driver's license or similar identification card that requires multiple forms of identification to be presented before it is obtained.


    an entity trusted by one or more users to create and assign certificates. A real world equivalent would be a driver's license, where a state government validates that the owner of a particular license is who they say they are and that a picture on the license represents them.


    a certificate providing evidence that a bank has received funds deposited for a specific period of time.


    a certification given by a title company or attorney verifying the validity of a title.


    process by which a new certificate is created for an existing public key.


    process of ascertaining that a set of requirements or criteria has been fulfilled and attesting to the fact to others, usually with some written instrument. Software that has been inspected and evaluated as fully compliant with the SET protocol by duly authorized parties and processes are said to be certified-compliant. With respect to security, certification sometimes refers to the technical evaluation of software's security features.


    a check guaranteed to be good by the bank on which it is drawn. In order to eliminate the risk of covering the check, many banks charge the depositor's account immediately for the amount of the check.


    public-private investment groups that are interested in fostering business in their communities.


    a mail service that provides proof of delivery. The regular mail service is used and insurance coverage is not provided.


    an accountant who has met all of a state's requirements and has received a state certificate.


    a member of a company's board of directors who is elected by the other directors to lead the board.


    systems of economic institutions through which goods flow into the hands of consumers or industrial firms.


    any disputed credit or off-line debit card sale that is returned to the Acquirer for reimbursement to the Cardholder's account. (The return of a sale that has previously been charged to an Issuer and subsequently to its Cardholder.)


    a list of account categories contained in the general ledger including asset, liability, equity, revenue and expense accounts.


    a Web site where subscribers can communicate with each other in real time.


    a piece of personal property.


    stage of a purchase during which the consumer provides shipping and payment information.


    the top managerial position in a company.


    a member of a company's upper management who oversees all the financial aspects of the business.


    an executive who oversees the daily operations of a company.


    the average number of copies distributed by a publication over a given period.


    the transfer of data between Issuers and Acquirers.


    an establishment overseen by banks, created to aid in the clearing of checks, drafts, notes, and other items among its members.


    to bring to an end; to finalize a sale or agreement.


    to liquidate or dispose of an entire inventory of goods usually by reducing prices below their previous retail price. Most businesses will do this when going out of business.


    a corporation whose shares of stock are held by only a few people, usually by those who are in active management positions. Restrictions are placed on the stockholders and their right to transfer stock to others.


    a corporation owned by a few individuals, who also own all the stock. No stock in the corporation is publicly traded. State regulations administer the establishment of corporations.


    (1) in accounting, when the books are summarized into financial statements for a specific time frame and no further entries are allowed for this period; (2) in real estate, where the buyer and seller (or their agents) meet to finalize the transaction. Sometimes called the settlement, this is where the transfer of property and funds take place.


    the expenses incurred by both buyers and sellers when real estate ownership is transferred. These costs are in excess of the price of the property.


    an entry made in a ledger to bring a temporary account to a zero balance in preparation for the next accounting period.


    the sharing of an insurance risk. In the case of property insurance, it may entail more than one insurance company providing coverage on a particular project in order to reduce the risk of potential loss. This is particularly true if the project is large in scope and high dollar. In health insurance, the policyholder may pay part of the insurance according to percentages stipulated by the insurance company at the time of the loss. For example, the insurance company may pay 80 percent leaving the policy holder to pay the remaining 20 percent.


    an unscheduled call or visit by a seller to a potential buyer.


    the asset(s), such as real property or an automobile, which is offered as security for a loan.


    a bill collecting agency that is often paid based on a percentage of money they receive on overdue payments.


    the negotiations between an employer and the union representative to obtain a contract for the employees in the union.


    a statement provided from an accounting firm to a company preparing to go public indicating the accountants' comfort that unaudited financial information in the company's prospectus follows generally accepted accounting practices and no material changes have occurred since the report was prepared.


    the buying and selling of commodities between states and nations.


    server dedicated to supporting Internet commerce.


    company that provides products and services similar to an Internet Service Provider but is more specialized for electronic commerce.


    state or nationally chartered bank that accepts demand deposits, grants business loans and provides a variety of other financial services. Typically used by the entrepreneur as an asset lender.


    an unsecured promissory note sold in the open market by corporations having a prime credit rating. Such notes usually have a short maturity and pay a relatively low interest rate.


    an incentive fee paid to salespeople to reward them for the amount of business they generate. The commission rate is usually figured at a fixed rate or a percentage of sales.


    an agreement or pledge to perform an act at a certain point in the future. In the commodity market, when a trader takes on the responsibility to accept or make delivery on a futures contract, he is said to have a commitment.


    a group of persons who meet regularly to consider, deliberate or make a decision on some matter.


    a commodity is an economic product such as food, grains, metals, etc., which are traded at a price set in the future. If the future price of the given commodity falls below the forecasted price, the purchaser experiences a loss. When the futures contract has expired, the speculator has to either sell at the given price or take possession of the product.


    an individual or business that transports goods, people or messages for compensation without partiality.


    rules that have been made from judicial decisions or custom without the aid of written legislature.


    also known as common stock. These are the shares of stock that re

Pazarlama Terimleri +

Glossary of marketing terms

Absolute advantage. One country enjoying total lower costs of production than another country (ies).

Adaptation. Goods or service adapted in either product, distribution or advertising form to take account of unique conditions in any one country(ies).

Advertising. Any form of marketing communication in the paid media.

Agent. A channel institution which represents one or more suppliers for a fee.

Aggressive exporter. An organisation which develops clear marketing strategies for what it intends to do in a foreign markets.

Anthropology. The discovery of beliefs, motives and values through the study of a society's overt and covert behaviour.

Area organisation. A form of international organisational structure used by highly marketing oriented organisations with stable products.

Attitudes and values. A predisposition towards a person or object based on cultural mores and values which is a precursor of behaviour.

Balance of payments. A measure of all economic transactions between one country and all other countries.

Barter. The direct exchange of goods and services between two parties, often without cash considerations.

Basis trading. The difference to new york futures, either on or off.

Bill of lading. The receipt given by the shipping company to the shipper for goods accepted for carriage by sea. (as opposed to an airway bill of lading for goods carried by air).

Bills of exchange. An unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person (drawer) to another (drawee), signed by the person giving it (drawer), requiring the person to whom it is addressed (drawee) to pay on demand, at a fixed or determinable future date, a sum certain in money to, or to the order of, a specific person (payee) or to bearer.

Broker. A channel institution which puts a specific buyer(s) and seller(s) in contact with one another in one or more commodity(ies) or service(s) with a view to achieving a sale or benefit.

Brussels nomenclature. An international convention aimed at grouping articles, mainly according to their material composition, into a simplified classification system for tariff administration.

Budget. An amount of money set aside to cover the total cost of a communication campaign or other marketing activity.

C.I.F. A contract of sale "cost, insurance freight" of the documents of title, not the goods, whereby the buyer is under an obligation to pay against the shipping documents irrespective of the arrival of the goods.

Cluster analysis. A technique for grouping similarities or differences between a set of objects or persons.

Comparative advantage. One country enjoying a lower production ratio (input to outputs) than another country under total specialisation.

Comparative analysis. Comparing the same set of statistics within a category of one country with another for the purpose of estimating potential demand.

Competition. A product, organisation or individual, in either the same or another category which can be directly substituted one for the other in fulfilling the same needs or wants.

Competitive strategy. The adoption of a specific target market and marketing mix stance in the market place.

Cooperative. A collection of organisations or individuals, pooling their resources in order to gain commercial or non-commercial advantage in buying, selling or processing goods and/or services.

Countertrade. An agreement by the customer to buy goods on condition that the seller buys some of the customer's own products in return.

Culture. The sum total of learned behaviourial characteristics or traits which are manifest and shared by members of a particular society.

Currency swaps. A method to gain access to foreign capital at favourable rates comprising contracts to exchange cash flow relating to the debt obligations of the two counterparts to the agreement.

Decentralised plans. A planning system taking into account differences in product/market conditions.

Demand pattern analysis. The analysis of in-country industrial sector growth patterns.

Devaluation. The reduction in the value of one currency vis a vis other countries.

Diffusion theory. A classification for the adoption of innovation(s) through social phenomenon, characterised by a normal distribution.

Distribution channel. An institution through which goods or services are marketed giving time and place utilities to users.

Dumping. The selling of goods or services in a buying country at less than the production unit price in the selling country, or the difference between normal domestic price and the price at which the product leaves the exporting country.

Duty. The actual custom duty based on an imported good either on an ad valorem, or specification amount per unit or combination of these two.

Ethnocentrism. A home country orientation but with export of surplus production. Exchange rate. The ratio of exchange of one currency to another.

Export credit guarantee fund. A facility, provided by government treasury, to guarantee the development costs of exports or legal claims arising there from.

Export processing zone. A zone, designated within the country, enjoying tax privileges or other status, where goods and services can be brought into, reprocessed and re-exported.

Exporting. The marketing of surplus goods produced in one country into another country.

Expropriation. The annexation or seizure of national assets as an extreme form of political action.

F.A.S. A contract of sale "free along side" whereby the seller undertakes to place the goods alongside a ship ready for boarding and carry all charges up to that point.

F.O.B. A contract of sale "free on board" whereby the seller undertakes to place the goods on board a named ship at a named port and berth and carry all charges up to delivery over the ships rail.

Foreign exchange. Facilities' business across national boundaries, usually expressed in foreign currency bought or sold on the foreign exchange market.

Forward rates. A mechanism whereby the risk of changes in exchange rates can be covered by obtaining a new rate quote for a future exchange of currencies.

Future. A legally binding contract to deliver/take delivery on a specified date of a given quality and quantity of a commodity at an agreed price.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). An institutional framework producing a set of rules and principles with the intention of liberalising trade between member countries.

Geocentrism. A world orientation with world market strategies.

Global environment. All semi or uncontrollable factors which a marketer has to account for in carrying out global operations.

Global evaluation. A four stage organisational development process evolving from first stage; domestic focus to a fourth stage; global marketing strategy of extension, adaptation and creation of market opportunities.

Global marketing. Marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives.

Global products. Products designed to meet global market segments.

Gross domestic product (GDP). The value of all goods and services produced by a country's domestic economy in one year.

Gross national product (GNP). The market value of all goods and services outputted by residents of a country in one year including income from aboard.

Hedging. A mechanism to avoid the risk of a decline in the future market of a commodity, usually by entering into futures markets.

Hierarchy of needs. The ordering of a person's needs into hierarchy of relative potency such that as lower order needs are fulfilled higher, unfulfilled order needs emerge, which require fulfillment.

High context culture. Minimum reliance on explicit verbal or written conversations, more on the "implied".

Ideology. An individual's organisation or country's political belief.

Income elasticity measurements. A description of the relationship between the demand for goods and changes in income.

Income per capita. The market value of all goods and services outputted by a country divided by the total number of residents of that country.

Inflation. A condition where demand outstrips supply or costs escalate, affecting an upward change in prices.

Information system. A system for gathering, analysing and reporting data aimed at reducing uncertainty in business decision making.

Interactive plans. A planning system whereby headquarters sets a policy and framework and subsidiaries interpret these under local conditions.

International monetary fund. A fund, with world wide country membership, (united nations) which lends money to countries on a short term basis to assist them balance of payments problems.

International product life cycle. A model which suggest that products go through a cycle whereby high income, mass consumption countries go through a cycle of exporting, loss of exports to final importers of products.

International products. Goods or services seen as having extended potential into other markets.

Joint ventures. An enterprise in which two or more investors share ownership and control over property rights and operations.

Letter of credit. A method of international payment whereby the buyer instructs his own country bank to open a credit with the seller's own country bank specifying the documents which the seller has to deliver to the bank for him/her to receive payment.

Levy. A tax imposed by government, to meet a specific objective.

Licensing. A method of foreign operation cooperation whereby an organisation in one country agrees to permit a firm in another country to use the manufacturing, processing, trademark, know-how or some other skill provided by the licensor.

Local products. Goods or services seen only suitable in one single market.

Low context culture. High reliance on explicit verbal or written communications or other explicit format.

Market entry. The way in which an organisation enters foreign markets either by direct or indirect export or production in a foreign country.

Market holding price. The charging of a price at what the market can bear in order to hold market share.

Market positioning. The adoption of a specific market stance, either leader, challenger, follower, flanker or adopter, vis a vis competition.

Marketing. Planning, executing and controlling the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services in order to build lasting, mutually profitable exchange relationships satisfying individual and organisational objectives.

Matrix organisation. A complex form of organisational structure bringing together the competencies of geographic knowledge, product knowledge and know how, and functional competencies - financial, production and marketing - and a knowledge of the customer, industry and its needs.

Media scheduling. A timetable for the allocation of advertising messages in the media over a given time horizon.

Media. Any paid for communication channel including television, radio, posters etc..

Mercantilism. A nationalist doctrine of one nation prospering at the expense of another nation.

Message. An informative communication about a product or service placed in a communication channel.

Multinational products. Goods or services adapted to the perceived unique characteristics of national markets.

Multiple factor indices. A measure of potential demand indirectly using, as proxies, variables that either intuition or statistical analysis suggest can be closely correlated with the potential demand for the product under view.

Nationalism. The assertion of indigenous culture by an individual, organisation or country.

Non tariff barriers. Measures, public or private that cause intentionally traded goods or services to be allocated in such a way as to reduce potential real world income.

Option. A bilateral contract giving its holder the right, but not the obligation to buy or sell a specified asset at a specific price, at or up to, a specific date.

Passive exporter. An organisation which awaits orders or comes across them by choice.

Penetration price. The charging of a low price in order to gain volume sales conducted under conditions of little product uniqueness and elastic demand patterns.

Physical distribution. The act and functions of physically distributing goods and services including the elements of transport, warehousing and order processing.

Polycentrism. A host country orientation on a subsidiary basis.

Price ceiling. The maximum price which can be charged bearing in mind competition and what the market can bear.

Price escalation. The difference between the domestic price and the target price in foreign markets due to the application of duties, dealer margins and/or other transaction costs.

Price floor. The minimum price which can be charged bounded by product cost.

Primary data. Unpublished data from individuals or organisations.

Product organisation. A form of international organisational structure whereby executives in functional areas are given global responsibility.

Product strategy. A set of decisions regarding alternatives to the target market and the marketing mix given a set of market conditions.

Product. A good or service offered by an organisation which affords a bundle of benefits both objective (physical) and subjective (image) to a user.

Promotion. The offer of an inducement to purchase, over and above the intrinsic value or price of a good service.

Purchasing power parity. The rate at which one unit of currency will purchase the same amount of goods and services as it bought in an equilibrium period, despite differential rates of inflation.

Quota. A specific imported amount imposed by one country on another, when once filled cannot be exceeded within a given time. When a quota is in force the price mechanism is not allowed to operate.

Regiocentrism. A regional market orientation with world market strategies.

Regression analysis. The selection of an independent variable which accounts for the most variance in a dependent variable.

Retailer. A channel institution which acts as an intermediary between other channel institutions and the end user and who usually breaks bulk, charging a margin for its services.

Revaluation. The increase in the value of one currency vis a vis other currencies.

Search. The collection of relevant information by deliberate searching either formally or informally.

Secondary data. Published accessible data from a variety of sources.

Self reference criterion. Perceptual distortion brought about by an individual's own cultural experience.

Skimming price. The charging of a high price in order to gain maximum revenue conducted under conditions of product uniqueness and inelastic demand patterns.

Sourcing. A decision to have certain components in the value chain manufactured out of the country. Often called the "make of buy" decision.

Standardisation. Same goods or services marketed in either product, distribution or advertising form, unchanged in any country.

Standardised plans. A uniform planning system applied globally, based on economics of scale and consumer uniformity.

Strategic business unit. A self contained grouping of organisations, products or technologies which serve an identified market and competes with identified competitors.

Surveillance. The collection of relevant information which crosses an individual's scanning attention field.

Tariff. An instrument of terms of access normally the imposition of a single or multiple excise rate on a imported good.

Terms of access. The conditions imposed by one country which apply to the importation of goods from another country.

The World Bank. Known also as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). A bank, with world wide country membership, (United nations) which provides long term capital to and economic development.

Transfer pricing. The price at which goods or services are transferred between one country and another within the same organisation.

Wholesaler. A channel institution which purchases and sells in bulk from either original suppliers and/or other channel intermediaries, charging a margin for its services.

Subject appendices - Global agriculture marketing management

Online Pazarlama Terimleri +

Glossary of Terms for Search Engine Positioning

Affiliate marketing

    Revenue sharing between two web sites. Affiliate site normally provide free advertising for an ecommerce site and compensation is based on performance i.e. sales, clicks, registrations, or a combination of all.

ALT tag

    Alternative text embedded in the HTML code for graphic files. Useful for robot (search engine) indexing, people who surf with graphics turned off and those on slow connections.


    A link stored in a Web browser for easy reference.

Click through

    Clicking on a banner ad from one site to the advertiser's home page is counted as one click-through.


    Information stored on a user's computer by a Web site so preferences are remembered on future requests.


    Online media buy terminology. Refers to cost per thousand impressions.

Description tag

    HTML tag used to by Web page authors to provide a description for search engine listings.


    Organized, categorized listings of Web sites. Directories employ teams of people, who follow strict guidelines, to review a submitted site and determine its inclusion and ranking.


    Multimedia technology developed by Macromedia. Flash allows for interactive web pages whose file sizes are relatively small.


    Embedded in HTML code of web pages. Frames divide a Web page into parts and allow easier viewing and navigation.


    A request of a file from a Web server. Total hits to a site/page are the combination of all downloads.

Home page

    The main page of a Web site.


    A single display of an online advertisement.

Inbound link

    A link from a site outside of your site.

Keyword Meta Tag

    The HTML META tag used to help define the primary keywords of a Web page in order to achieve a ranking on search engines against those keyword queries.

Link Popularity

    A measure of the quantity and quality of sites that link to your site. Aids in search engine positioning and ranking.

Outbound link

    A link to a site outside of your own.

Page view

    A request to load a single HTML page.

Pay- per-click

    An online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on click-through.

Pay per click search engine

    Search engine where web sites are ranked according to the bid amount, and advertisers are charged when a searcher clicks on the search listing. Go.com is one such engine.

Permission marketing

    Obtaining customer consent to receive information from the company. Permission marketing in the online world takes the form of email promotions and newsletters.


    A site that serves as a starting point and gateway to the World Wide Web e.g. AOL.com.

Manual submissions

    Submitting a URL (keywords, descriptions etc.) to each search engines by hand.

Meta search engine

    A search engine that displays results from a multitude of other search engines and directories.

Reciprocal links

    Outbound links exchanged for inbound links.

Search engine

    An automated system that relies on a software agent (otherwise known as spiders, robots or crawlers) that explores the World Wide Web following links from site to site (see importance of Link Exchange) and catalogues relevant text and content into the search engine's database.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

    This is a newer term and separates what was once part of the function of a Search Engine optimizer, Search Engine Marketing specifically is the function of locating, researching, submitting, and positioning a web site within the proper search engines for maximum exposure and effectiveness. SEM may also include the function of choosing the target keywords and keyword phrases for the web site's meta tags

Search engine optimization (SEO)

    The process of updating HTML code and choosing targeted keyword phrases related to a site, and ensuring that the site places well when those keywords are queried on search engines. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) involves the careful optimization of corporate web sites to effectively increase their visibility in the major search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Alta-Vista, Inktomi and many others. It makes the difference between a web site that has very little visibility and one that will be seen and found by millions of people.

Search engine Spam

    Excessive manipulation to influence search engine rankings, often for pages which contain little or no relevant content. Can result in penalization of a web site.

Search engine submission

    Inserting a URL into a search engine "submit" form in order make the search engine aware of a site or page for indexing and positioning.

Title tag

    An HTML tag used to define the text in the top line of a Web browser, also used by many search engines as the title of search listings and for bookmark identification.

Unique visits

    Individuals who have visited a Web site (or network) at least once in a fixed time frame, typically a 30 day period.

Viral Marketing

    Encouraging visitors to an online site to pass along a marketing message by providing an incentive for doing so.

Web site traffic

    The amount of total visitors and unique visits to a Web site.


CRM Terimleri +

Activity Accounting

    A system that defines and reports the activities, costs, activity characteristics and outputs of each department, cost center or group of employees in an organization.

Activity Based Budgeting (ABB)

    Activity Based Budgeting (ABB) is a common sense, systematic method of planning and budgeting the resources of an organization. In essence, ABB is Activity Accounting in reverse, e.g. start ABB at the bottom of the Activity Accounting spreadsheet. Define the cost per output target and planned activity workloads to determine headcount and expense budgets.

Activity Based Management (ABM)

    Activity Based Management (ABM) is common sense, systematic method of planning, controlling and improving labor and overhead cost. ABM is based on the principle "activities consume costs". While traditional cost systems focus on the "worker", ABM systems focus on the "work". The basic building block for ABM is Activity Accounting.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is a systematic, cause & effect method of assigning the cost of activities to products, services, customers or any cost object. ABC is based on the principle that "products consume activities". Traditional cost systems allocate costs based on direct labor, material cost, revenue or other simplistic methods. As a result, traditional systems tend to overcost high volume products, services and customers and undercost low volume.

Application Service Provider (ASP)

    Application Service Provider (ASP) offers an outsourcing mechanism whereby they develop, supply and manage application software and hardware for their customers, thus freeing up customers' internal IT resources.

Application Software

    Software applications that are intended for end-users, such as database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Application software runs on top of system software.

Artificial Intelligence

    A broad term describing the field of developing computer programmes to simulate human thought processes and behaviours.

Artificial Intelligence

    A broad term describing the field of developing computer programmes to simulate human thought processes and behaviours.

Artificial Intelligence

    A broad term describing the field of developing computer programmes to simulate human thought processes and behaviours.

Audit Trail

    Manual or computerized tracing of the transactions affecting the contents or origin of a record.


    A characteristic of modern information systems, gauged by the ease with which data can be substantiated by trading it to source documents and the extent to which auditors can rely on preverified and monitored control processes.


    1.The process of verifying the eligibility of a device, originator, or individual to access specific categories of information or to enter specific areas of a facility. This process involves matching machine-readable code with a predetermined list of authorized end users.
    2. A practice of establishing the validity of a transmission, message, device, or originator, which was designed to provide protection against fraudulent transmissions.


    The process of confirming a user’s identity; commonly done through the use of passwords or digital certificates.

Automatic Call Distributor (ACD)

    The specialized telephone system used in incoming call centers. It is a programmable device that automatically answers calls, queues calls, distributes calls to agents, plays delay announcements to callers and provides real-time and historical reports on these activities. May be a stand-alone system, or ACD capability built into a CO, network or PBX.

Available To Sell (ATS).

    Total quantity of goods committed to the pipeline for a ship to or selling location. This includes the current inventory at a location and any open purchase orders. ATS is the quantity compared to the Goal and ROP to determine the replenishment need.


Balanced Scorecard

    A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.


    The continuous process of measuring producers, services, and practices against strong competitors or recognized industry leaders. It is an ongoing activity that is intended to improve performance and can be applied to all facets of operation. Benchmarking requires a measurement mechanism so that the performance "gap" can be identified. It focuses on comparing best practices among dissimilar enterprises.

Best Practice (Good Practice)

    A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.


    A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in cronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominantly.

Bounced Email

    Email that the Internet has been unable to deliver to a recipient's address after several tries is returned (bounced) to the sender. This can happen for a number of reasons and the header of the bounced message may have one of these clues: user unknown (check your spelling), host unknown (check your spelling), network unreachable (gateway or network backbone problems), user's mailbox quota is exceeded, connection timed out (software problem on the destination mailserver), or connection refused (problem with destination mail server).


    A high-speed, high-capacity transmission channel. Broadband channels are carried on coaxial or fiber-optic cables that have a wider bandwidth than conventional telephone lines, giving them the ability to carry video, voice, and data simultaneously.

Business Intelligence

    Business Intelligence refers to the type of granular information that line-of-business managers seek as they analyze sales trends, customer buying habits and other key performance metrics of an organization.

Business Metrics

    Business Metrics is a set of traditional and nontraditional business measurements - such as judging product and service quality, rating customer relationships and measuring employee satisfaction and commitment - that are seen as critical for improving a company's bottom line.

Business Process Management (BPM)

    Business Process Management defines, enables, and manages the exchange of enterprise information through the semantics of a business process view that involves employees, customers, partners, applications and databases. It has to be capable of modeling a process, brokering that process, delivering it with straight through processing (STP), and then managing it, all within a single environment. Because of its far reaching implications for the ability of enterprises to adapt, it is much more than a technology fad but a management issue that needs to be on senior management's agenda, driving the IT support of the business. (Source: Aberdeen Group)

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

    A systematic, disciplined improvement approach that critically examines, rethinks, and redesigns, and implements the redesigned mission-delivery pro-cesses to achieve dramatic improvements in performance in areas important to customers and other stakeholders. BPR is also referred to by such terms as business process improvement (BPI) or business process development, and business process redesign. While the term can be applied to incremental process improvement effort, it is more commonly and increasingly associated with dramatic or radical overhauls of existing business processes.

Business-to-Business (B2B)

    As opposed to business-to-consumer (B2C). Many companies are now focusing on this strategy, and their sites are aimed at businesses (think wholesale) and only other businesses can access or buy products on the site. Internet analysts predict this will be the biggest sector on the Web.

Business-to-Consumer (B2C)

    The hundreds of e-commerce Web sites that sell goods directly to consumers are considered B2C. This distinction is important when comparing Websites that are B2B as the entire business model, strategy, execution, and fulfillment is different.


Call Center

    A call center is a central place or network of places where customer and other telephone calls are handled by an enterprise. Typically, a call center has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the same time, to screen calls and forward them to someone qualified to handle them, and to log calls. Call Centers are used by mail-order catalog organizations, telemarketing companies, computer product help desks, and any large enterprise that uses the telephone to sell or service products and services.


    A user authentication scheme used by computers running dial-in services. A user dials in to a computer and types a logon ID password. The computer breaks the connection and automatically calls the user back at a preauthorized number.

Category Management

    The management of product categories as strategic business units. The practice empowers a category manager with full responsibility for the assortment decisions, inventory levels, shelf-space allocation, promotions and buying. With this authority and responsibility, the category manager is able to judge more accurately the consumer buying patterns, product sales and market trends of that category.

Change Management

    The practice of steering a company in a new strategic direction and keeping all involved people and projects aligned with the new goals as the organization, jobs, technology and processes are uprooted.

Channel Conflict

    This occurs when a company's old economy supply chain competes with its new economy supply chains.


    A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential.

Collaborative Working

    A generic term that simply means teamwork or a group effort. It also has a more specific meaning in knowledge management, where it is often used to describe close working relationships involving the sharing of knowledge.

Competitive Advantage

    A widely-used term in the private sector to describe something that differentiates a company from its competitors in the same industry and makes it more likely to gain profits than the others.

Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)

    Combining data with voice systems in order to enhance telephone services. For example, automatic number identification (ANI) allows a caller's records to be retrieved from the database while the call is routed to the appropriate party. Automatic telephone dialing from an address list is an outbound example.

Content Management System (CMS)

    Content management systems support the creation, management, distribution, publishing, and discovery of corporate information. Also known as ‘web content management’ (WCM), these systems typically focus on online content targeted at either a corporate website or intranet.

Customer Analytics

    Customer Analytics comprises all programming that analyzes data about an enterprise's customers and presents it so that better and quicker business decisions can be made. CRM analytics can be considered a form of online analytical processing (OLAP) and may employ data mining. (Source: SearchCRM.com)

Customer Capital

    The value of an organization's relationships with its customers including the intangible loyalty of its customers to the company or a product, based on reputation, purchasing patterns, or the customers' ability to pay.

Customer Experience

    An experience can be described as the emotional effect on a person during the course of an action or an event. The Customer Experience is the emotional response of a customer or prospect when interacting with a company during a business transaction. As any marketer will testify, customers are becoming increasingly difficult to woo. Customers want low prices for quality products and services, they want to purchase them efficiently and conveniently and what’s more, they want personal service through and beyond the purchase process. Companies are recognizing that the key to sustained and profitable business growth is the customer. As such, many are depolarising their operations and migrating from a product-centric to a customer-focused business. These companies are also consolidating their brand to offer a "360-degree" Customer Experience so that the customer gets a consistent brand message at every angle. The net effect of these efforts is an improved, consistent customer experience across all touch points, better customer service, increased market share and customer loyalty.


Data Cleansing

    The process of ensuring that a company .s CRM data is consistent, accurate and recorded correctly. Data Cleansing is often performed on existing legacysystems that have duplicate records or that are plagued by poor querying and reporting due to dirty data. It is also a critical component of any new CRM implementation in an effort to ensure that the new system starts with clean data.

Data Management

    An ability to solve the problems associated with storing, managing and extracting information from the numerous data sets being used by an organization.

Data Mart

    A repository of data that serves a particular community of knowledge workers. The data may come from an enterprisewide database or a data warehouse.

Data Migration

    Also referred to as Data Conversion or Data Import. This process involves moving data from an old system into the new CRM system. Existing data from the old system will be cleansed and mapped to the new CRM system prior to starting this process.

Data Mining

    An information extraction activity whose goal is to discover hidden facts contained in databases. Using a combination of machine learning, statistical analysis, modeling techniques and database technology, data mining finds patterns and subtle relationships in data and infers rules that allow the prediction of future results. Typical applications include market segmentation, customer profiling, fraud detection, evaluation of retail promotions, and credit risk analysis.

Data Modeling

    The practice of analyzing an enterprise’s data and identifying the relationships among the data.

Data Scrubbing

    The practice of monitoring a data warehouse and removing data that is not trustworthy or timely.

Data Warehouse

    A Data Warehouse is a consolidated view of your enterprise data, optimized for reporting and analysis. Basically it's an aggregated, sometimes summarized copy of transaction and non-transaction data specifically structured for dynamic queries and analytics. In data warehousing, data and information are extracted from heterogeneous production data sources as they are generated, or in periodic stages, making it simpler and more efficient to run queries over data that originally came from different sources. Data is turned into high-quality information to meet all enterprise reporting requirements for all levels of users. Interactive content can be delivered to anyone in the extended enterprise – customers, partners, employees, managers, and executives – anytime, anywhere.

Database Marketing

    The process of building, maintaining and using customer databases for the purpose of contacting and transacting business.

Database System

    A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications:
    - computerized library systems
    - automated teller machines
    - flight reservation systems
    - computerized parts inventory systems
    From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.


    DBMS stands for Database Management Systems. Companies need to process a large amount of data. Manual storage of this data wastes a lot of time while retrieving it. It also requires tedious clerical hours to arrange the data in the form required by top management. Storing this data in a way to facilitate easy access is very important and that is why computers are used in organizations. This is possible using DBMS. DBMS, besides allowing you to store large amounts of data, allows you to retrieve information easily whenever and in whichever format it is desired.

Decision Support System (DSS)

    Software that speeds access and simplifies data analysis, queries, etc. within a database management system.

Demand Chain Management (DCM)

    Same as Supply Chain Management, but with emphasis on consumer pull vs. supplier push.

Digital Certificates

    Digital Certificates are issued by a trusted third party known as a certification authority (CA). The CA validates the identity of a certificate holder and "signs" the certificate to attest that it hasn't been forged or altered in any way.

Direct Marketing

    Direct marketing is broadly defined, in media terms, as any direct communication to a consumer or business recipient that is designed to generate a response in the form of an order (direct order), a request for further information (lead generation), and/or a visit to a store or other place of business for purchase of a specific product(s) or service(s) (traffic generation). A leading trade magazine Direct Marketing goes a bit further: "an interactive system of marketing that uses one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response and/or transaction at any location, with this activity stored on a database." The goal is to provide the customer information relative to their needs and interests. A recent Bear Stearns profile on the direct and interactive marketing industry offers a helpful way of looking at it as a cyclical process with six distinct phases: The creative and design phase...where a marketing plan and media channels are selected; Data compilation...where both internal data, such as customer lists...and outside data from a database company or list broker are assembled in preparation for phase three, which is.... Database management...where the information is purged, enhanced and standardized; Database analysis...which further focuses on an optimal target market; Next...execution and fulfillment...where customer inquiries and orders are acted upon...and that information is passed on to selected media channels; and... And finally...response analysis...where the results of the campaign are examined for effectiveness before this cycle begins again. As we move into the 21st Century direct and interactive marketers will continue to focus on customer acquisition, service and value in traditional as well as new media.

Dirty Data

    A common problem found in applications that employ databases. Dirty data may include incorrect or missing data values, and duplicate records, which can lead to problems such as inaccurate queries and reports. Dirty data may be the caused by badly managed data imports, poor entry standards for end users, poor coding or customization of the CRM system. When implementing a CRM system, one critical component is to ensure that your existing data is cleansed and properly migrated to the new system.

Document Management

    Systems and processes for managing documents including the creation, editing, production, storage, indexing and disposal of documents. This usually refers to electronic documents and uses specific document management software.



    e-Commerce denotes all business activity carried out on the web including programs and systems for the management of commercial activity on the Internet. Also used for programmes that facilitates and simplify the carrying out of such activities.


    Is the acronym for electronic Customer Relationship Management. This is the online version of Customer Relationship Management utilising and interfacing business processes and data with offline, back end systems. eCRM consistently manages personal relevant and productive interactions, a means to build successful relationships with customers, vendors, employees, investors, and others using new technology.

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)

    A strategy in which the grocery retailer, distributor and supplier trading partners work closely together to eliminate excess costs from the grocery supply chain.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

    Computer-to-Computer transmission of business information in a standard format. For EDI purists, "computer-to-computer" means direct transmission from the originating application program to the receiving, or processing, application program, and an EDI transmission consists only of business data, not any accompanying verbiage or free-form messages. Purists might also contend that a standard format is one that is approved by a national or international standards organization, as opposed to formats developed by industry groups or companies.

Email Marketing

    The promotion of products or services via email. When used correctly, and ethically, email marketing is one of the most effective forms of online advertising.

Employee Internet Management (EIM)

    Employee Internet Management is about creating a safe and productive e-enabled workplace. Finding the right balance of personal and professional use of the Internet, conserving resources, protecting individual property and safeguarding your organisation against legal liability.

Employee Relationship Management (ERM)

    It is a process that recognises employees of an organization as individuals and continually monitors the needs and rewards that bring out their unique best. In terms of technology ERM delivers streamlined administrative functions to a company's operations, productivity tools to its managers, and communication improvements throughout the enterprise.

Enterprise Relationship Management (ERM)

    An enterprise-wide strategy and solution that impacts a company's back office. It is designed to improve the management and flow of these operations by integrating and automating back office departments and processes.

Enterprise Resource Management(ERM)

    The practice of providing users with efficient access to an organization’s network resources. ERM enables the enterprise to control and track the systems and resources that each user has access to and provides consistent standards for creating and changing passwords.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

    ERP stands for “enterprise resource planning.” The definition of enterprise resource planning is, essentially, an integrated software solution used to manage a company’s resources. Business planning systems have been evolving for decades, and ERP, enterprise resource planning, is the current generation.


Field Sales

    Refers to a company's sales force that normally works outside of the main offices. These employees often lack continuous PC connection with their company's network and therefore perform many of their tasks offline. They require access to customer data and CRM functionality, as well as the ability to easily synchronize their CRM systems with the company's main CRM system.

Field Service Management (FSM)

    Field service management solutions provide the tools that help an organization manage all aspects of service delivery when that service must be delivered at a customer's premises. Sometimes referred to as enterprise service management (ESM) or field workforce management (FWM), FSM solutions can include:
    -Call logging and tracking capabilities that manage inbound requests for service and create work orders and trouble tickets
    - Dispatch and scheduling capabilities that assign service technicians to jobs and manage service activities at the customer site
    - Contract management that tracks warranties, entitlements, service level agreements (SLAs), and other customer obligations that can affect when and how service is provided
    - Logistics to manage the inventory, provisioning, return, and repair of equipment and parts that are used in repair activities Among the supporting services that can help assist service delivery or that Aberdeen predicts will provide such assistance in the future are:
    - Mobile computing applications that extend core functionality by providing real-time or quasi-real-time communications between the technicians in the field and central applications and staff
    - Knowledge management applications that help provide documentation and diagnostic services to assist the field technician
    - Online collaboration solutions that facilitate field-to-dispatcher or field-to-field information sharing
    - Global positioning applications that provide real-time updates on technician locations
    - Device-based capabilities that foster e-support by communicating prospective problems (outright failures or events exceeding thresholds or tolerances), alert the service application to perform diagnostics or issue a trouble ticket
    Because of a number of factors relating to both market intransigence and supplier challenges, field service has tended to move slower than other sectors within the customer relationship management market. But the opportunities today are growing—and are more present than ever—for suppliers to meet the needs of user organizations with new capabilities that encompass the mobile workforce, making the FSM solution a more complete offering. Source: This document is an excerpt from "What Works: Ten Significant Implementations in Service Management" (September 2002) by Aberdeen Group. For more information about this subject, please visit http://crm.aberdeen.com/areas/service.htm.

Front Office Solution

    Software applications designed to assist organizations with the management of tasks and processes related to customer-facing departments. This is usually a CRM solution, but may include any other applications used in the customer lifecycle.


Inbound & Outbound CRM

    Inbound CRM covers the experience customers have when they initiate contact with a business through any channel – whether through call centre, IVR or the Internet. Outbound CRM is when a business initiates contact with a customer for the purposes of maintaining its relationship with that customer.


    A term that is used in a variety of ways. Some regard it as the study of the impact that technology has on people. Some take a broader view and consider it to be the science of information and information technology. Others regard it as being broader still, referring to the creation, recognition, representation, collection, organisation, transformation, communication, evaluation and control of information in various contexts.

Information Communication Technology (ICT)

    Technology that combines computing with high-speed communications links carrying data, sound and video.

Information Technology (IT)

    A term that encompasses the physical elements of computing including servers, networks and desktop computing which enable digital information to be created, stored, used and shared.

Intangible Assets

    The non-physical resources of an organisation. An example might be the reputation linked to a brand name such as Mercedes or Microsoft, or the loyalty of customers to a company such as Marks & Spencer. These assets are not generally accounted for in an organisation's financial statements, but they are of great value to the organisation.

Intellectual Capital

    The value, or potential value, of an organisation's intellectual assets (or knowledge assets). An attempt by organisations to place a financial value on their knowledge. Intellectual capital is often defined as the combination of three sub-categories: human capital, structural capital and customer capital.


    A computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.

IP Contact Centre

    IP stands for Internet Protocol. An IP Contact Centre is a multi channel contact centre, designed to support customers using IP based telephony. Traditional specialised hardware such as ACD, PBX and IVR are replaced by applications on the IP Network. This results in a framework that is more flexible and provides a better platform for unified queuing and incorporating IP-based new media (web, collaboration, chat.)


    International Standards Organization. An organization within the United Nations to which all national and other standard setting bodies defer. Develops and monitors international standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400.


    An automated telephone information system that speaks to the caller with a combination of fixed voice menus and realtime data from databases. The caller responds by pressing digits on the telephone or speaking words or short phrases. Applications include bank-by-phone, flight-scheduling information and automated order entry and tracking. IVR systems allow callers to get needed information 24 hours a day. They are also used as a front end to call centers in order to offload as many calls as possible to costly human agents. In such cases, it does not replace the agent, but helps to eliminate the need for them to constantly answer simple, repetitive questions.



    An object-oriented programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems. Similar to C++, Java is smaller, more portable, and easier to use than C++ because it is more robust and it manages memory on its own. Java was also designed to be secure and platform-neutral (meaning that it can be run on any platform) through the fact that Java programs are compiled into bytecodes, which are similar to machine code and are not specific to any platform.

Just-In-Time (JIT)

    A manufacturing philosophy based on arrival of each component of a product just in time as it is assembled. It cuts non-value added tasks, cuts inventory, eliminates delay, and requires near-zero defects and fast setup times, particularly for repetitive, discrete manufacturing.


Knowledge Audit

    A method of reviewing and mapping knowledge in an organisation including an analysis of knowledge needs, resources, flows, gaps, users and uses. A knowledge audit will generally include aspects of an information audit but is broader than an information audit.

Knowledge Management

    Knowledge management software enables customer service and help desk organisations to access and deliver answers via phone, email and the web. Essentially, it manages an organisation’s knowledge of its customer base so critical information is readily available to operatives.

Knowledge Mapping

    A process to determine where knowledge assets are in an organisation, and how knowledge flows operate in the organisation. Evaluating relationships between holders of knowledge will then illustrate the sources, flows, limitations, and losses of knowledge that can be expected to occur.

Knowledge Repository

    A place to store and retrieve explicit knowledge. A low-tech knowledge repository could be a set of file folders. A high-tech knowledge repository might be based on a database platform.


Live Help - Chat Software

    Real-time communication between two users via computer. Once a chat has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user's monitor. Used for live technical support, customer service and pre-sales.

Local Area Network (LAN)

    A data communications network spanning a limited geographical area, usually a few miles at most, providing communications between computers and peripheral devices.


    The function of sourcing and distributing material and product in the proper place and in proper quantities.


Marketing Automation

    A subset of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) functions that focuses on the definition, scheduling and tracking of marketing campaigns. It includes the identification of target markets, advertising delivery, budget definition, results analysis and other related activities. Most of the times it refers to an emerging category of software tools that focus on applying software technology to aid in marketing. Specific tasks tackled by some of these programs include: Lead Management, Campaign Management, Data Mining and Intelligent Marketing Assistance.

Marketing Segmentation

    Marketing segmentation describes the division of a market into groups which will respond differently to promotions, communications, advertising and other marketing variables. Each group or "segment" is targeted by a different marketing mix. Market segmentation for marketing of products and services is an effective way to gain customer acquisition.

Material Resource Planning (MRP)

    The practice of calculating what materials are required to build a product by analyzing a bill of material data, inventory data and the master production schedule. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an outgrowth of MRP.


    A set of traditional and non-traditional business measurements such as rating customer satisfaction and order throughput time. A critical aspect of a CRM strategy and solution is the definition, tracking and reporting of a company's metrics.


    Microsegmentation is a marketing strategy that narrows and refines a market into ever-smaller segments sharing many common traits - such as people whose household income is more than $100,000 or who bought at least two high-ticket items last year. This helps create tightly focused direct marketing messages to smaller groups of would-be customers.


OLAP Database

    Acronym for "Online Analytical Processing Database." A relational database system capable of handling queries more complex than those handled by standard relational databases, through multidimensional access to data (viewing the data by several different criteria), intensive calculation capability, and specialized indexing techniques.

Online Profiling

Online profiling involves collecting and analyzing customer Web site data - information that can be used to personalize and customize an end user's Web experience. Network advertisers use online profiles to track end users across multiple Web sites. The practice is controversial and may ultimately be subject to federal regulation.

Open Source

    Software built by programmers who think technology should be distributed without charge. Open source programs, such as the Linux operating system, post their source code for free so that anyone can use, modify and improve them.

Organisational Culture

    In short, 'the way we do things around here'. An organisation's culture is a mixture of its traditions, values, attitudes and behaviours. Different organisations can have very different cultures. In knowledge management, an organisation's culture is extremely important - if it is not based on qualities such as trust and openness, then knowledge management initiatives are unlikely to succeed.


Partner Relationship Management (PRM)

    PRM, a subset of CRM, is the application of Relationship Management strategies and technologies to the unique needs of indirect sales channels. CRM and PRM systems help businesses develop and sustain profitable customer and partner relationships. (source: CRM Guru)


    Personal Digital Assistant: a small hand-held computer that in the most basic form, allows you to store names and addresses, prepare to-do lists, schedule appointments, keep track of projects, track expenditures, take notes, and do calculations. Depending on the model, you also may be able to send or receive e-mail; do word processing; play MP3 music files; get news, entertainment and stock quotes from the Internet; play video games; and have an integrated digital camera or GPS receiver.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX)

    An in-house telephone switching system that interconnects telephone extensions with the outside telephone network. It may include functions such as least cost routing for outside calls, call forwarding, conference calling and call accounting. Modern PBXs use all-digital methods for switching and may support both digital terminals and telephones along with analog telephones.


Quick Response (QR)

    A strategy widely adopted by general merchandise and soft lines retailers and manufacturers to reduce retail out-of-stocks, forced markdowns and operating expenses. These goals are accomplished through shipping accuracy and reduced response time. QR is a partnership strategy in which suppliers and retailers work together to respond more rapidly to the consumer by sharing point-of-sale scan data, enabling both to forecast replenishment needs.



    It stands for Relational Database Management Systems. The functionality of RDBMS is the same as DBMS except that the features offered for data storage and retrieval are very advanced. These systems are based on mathematical SET theory. A RDBMS ensures that the data stored in the database is accurate and relevant. Excellent security features are offered by these systems. RDBMS packages are used in medium to large-scale organizations, especially, those where data has to be made available on distributed networks. These systems have capability to store a very large amount of data and have quick data retrieval mechanisms. They also have elaborate database administration for handling multi-users, storage, and failures.An RDBMS uses SQL (Structures Query Language) to access data from database. This is a standard language commonly used across different RDBMS.

Real Time

    The processing of data in a business application as it happens - as contrasted with storing data for input at a later time (batch processing).

Relationship Marketing

    Relationship Marketing involves the understanding, focusing and management of ongoing collaboration between suppliers and selected customers for mutual value creation and sharing through interdependence and organizational alignment.

Return On Investment (ROI)

    The calculation of how much money will be saved or earned as a result of the investment in a CRM solution. An ROI analysis should be prepared at the start of a CRM initiative. After a predetermined period of time has past from the date the CRM solution was launched, measurements are made to compare the benefits gained against the implementation costs.


Tacit Knowledge (or Implicit Knowledge)

    The knowledge or know-how that people carry in their heads. Compared with explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge is more difficult to articulate or write down and so it tends to be shared between people through discussion, stories and personal interactions. It includes skills, experiences, insight, intuition and judgement. Note: Some authors draw a distinction between tacit and implicit knowledge, defining tacit knowledge as that which cannot be written down, and implicit knowledge as that which can be written down but has not been written down yet. In this context, explicit knowledge is defined as that which has already been written down.


    A hierarchical structure used for categorising a body of information or knowledge, allowing an understanding of how that body of knowledge can be broken down into parts, and how its various parts relate to each other. Taxonomies are used to organise information in systems, therefore helping users to find it.

Territory Management

    This feature is found in the sales module of a CRM solution. It allows companies to more effectively manage sales personnel, distribute leads and align resources with opportunities.

Text Mining

    Text Mining is about looking for patterns in natural language text, and may be defined as the process of analyzing text to extract information from it for particular purposes. Text mining recognizes that complete understanding of natural language text, a long-standing goal of computer science, is not immediately attainable and focuses on extracting a small amount of information from text with high reliability. The information extracted might be the author, title and date of publication of an article, the acronyms defined in a text or the articles mentioned in the bibliography.


Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

    A string that supplies the Internet address of a website or resource on the World Wide Web, along with the protocol by which the site or resource is accessed. The most common URL type is http://, which gives the Internet address of a web page.


    A computer operating system built by Bell Labs in 1969 as an interactive time-sharing system. Unix was the first standard operating system that anyone could improve or enhance and is used in workstation products from many companies.


Value Chain

    A series of activities, which combined, define a business process; the series of activities from manufacturers to the retail stores that define the industry supply chain.

Value-Added Network (VAN)

    A company that acts as a clearing-house for electronic transactions between trading partners. A third-party supplier that receives EDI transmissions from sending trading partners and holds them in a 'mailbox' until retrieved by the receiving partners.

Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI)

    The practice of retailers making suppliers responsible for determining order size and timing, usually based on receipt of retail POS and inventory data. Its goal is to increase retail inventory turns and reduce stock outs.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

    A private network that is configured within a public network (a carrier's network or the Internet) in order to take advantage of the economies of scale and management facilities of large networks. VPNs are widely used by enterprises to create wide area networks (WANs) that span large geographic areas, to provide site-to-site connections to branch offices and to allow mobile users to dial up their company LANs. For years, common carriers have built VPNs that appear as a private national or international network to each customer, but, in fact, are sharing the same physical backbone trunks with many customers. VPNs have been built over X.25, Switched 56, frame relay and ATM technologies as well as IP networks. For added security, encryption is often used. Encrypted connections over the Internet are also very popular for linking remote offices and mobile users; however, for top secret communications, the maximum security is still only afforded by networks of totally private lines.

Voice Over IP (VOIP)

    Voice Over IP, a term that originally described the transmission of real-time voice calls over a data network that uses IP, but currently is used to describe “anything over IP,” for example, voice, fax, video, etc.

Voice Recognition

    The conversion of spoken words into computer text. Speech is first digitized and then matched against a dictionary of coded waveforms. The matches are converted into text as if the words were typed on the keyboard. There are three types of voice recognition applications. Command systems recognize a few hundred words and eliminate using the mouse or keyboard for repetitive commands. This is the least taxing on the computer. Discrete voice recognition systems are used for dictation, but require a pause between each word. Continuous voice recognition understands natural speech without pauses and is the most process intensive.


    An extension to XML that defines voice segments and enables access to the Internet via telephones and other voice-activated devices. AT&T, Lucent and Motorola created the Voice XML Forum to support this development. For more information, visit www.voicexml.org.


Web Analytics

    Web analytics refers to the measurement, analysis and reporting of Web site usage by visitors. The information helps site managers better understand the effectiveness of their site initiatives and helps them optimize their Web site. This optimization process could occur in a number of ways, including site content, media and promotional mix, merchandising, functional efficiency (such as measuring the effectiveness of internal search tools), site process designs and much more.

Web Mining

    Web mining is the application of data mining or other information process techniques to WWW, to find useful patterns. People can take advantage of these patterns to access WWW more efficiently. Web mining can be divided into three categories: content mining, usage mining, and structure mining. Web content mining is an automatic process that extracts patterns from on-line information, such as the HTML files, images, or E-mails, and it already goes beyond only keyword extraction or some simple statistics of words and phrases in documents. Web structure mining is a research field focused on using the analysis of the link structure of the web, and one of its purposes is to identify more preferable documents. The intuition is that a hyperlink from document A to document B implies that the author of document A thinks document B contains worthwhile information. Web servers record and accumulate data about user interactions whenever requests for resources are received. Analyzing the web access logs of different web sites can help understand the user behavior and the web structure, thereby improving the design of this colossal collection of resources.

Web Services

    Web services is Internet or other IP-based network applications built with four emerging standards: XML, simple object access protocol (SOAP), Web services description language (WSDL), and universal description discovery and integration (UDDI). That allows the applications to talk to each other—no human intervention needed. What Web services is all about is interoperability of applications, be they written in Perl or Java or Windows or whatever.

Web-based CRM

    Customer Relationship Management application that provides full access to users over the world wide web, ensuring data security and integrity.


    Short for wireless fidelity. This is another name for IEEE 802.11b. It is a trade term promulgated by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). "Wi-Fi" is used in place of 802.11b in the same way that "Ethernet" is used in place of IEEE 802.3. Products certified as Wi-Fi by WECA are interoperable with each other even if they are from different manufacturers. A user with a Wi-Fi product can use any brand of Access Point with any other brand of client hardware that is built to the Wi-Fi standard.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

    A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.


    The automation of a process or series of processes through the linking of tasks and activities. The CRM software automatically routes tasks, notifications and records to predefined or user selected destinations such as users, departments, or business units.

World Wide Web (WWW)

    An Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system that originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland. On the WWW everything (documents, menus, indexes) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible by FTP, Gopher, Telnet, or news, as well as those available by means of the HTTP protocol used to transfer hypertext documents. The client program (known as a browser) runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server.



    eXtensible Markup Language. A subset of SGML constituting a particular text markup language for interchange of structured data. The Unicode Standard is the reference character set for XML content. XML is a trademark of the World Wide Web Consortium.


Bilgi Yönetimi +


Bilgi Yonetimi Terimleri Sozlugu

Bilgi yonetiminde konulari ve kavramlari anlatan ve tanimlayan bircok ozel terim vardir. Ayrica, bilgi yonetimi acisindan genel kullanimindan daha farkli bir anlam ifade eden terimler de bulunmaktadir. Bunlardan baslicalari burada kisaca verilmektedir.

Acik bilgi: Bicimsel, sistematik ve kolaylikla paylasilabilen bilgi.

Balanced Scorecard: Organizasyonlarda gecmis performansin mali olculerini elde tutarken gelecekteki performansi etkileyebilecek musteriler, sirket ici yontemler, ogrenme - gelistirme gibi etkenleri de ortaya koyan bir olcu sistemi ve yonetim surecinin duzenleyici cercevesidir. Ozellikle bilgi caginin sirketlerinde stratejilerin eyleme donusturulmesini ve stratejiden uretilen olculerin butunlestirilmesini saglayan bir cercevedir.

Benchmarking: Kendi sirketinin basari degerlerini olcerek ve sektorun liderinin ya da kiyaslanabilecek uygun bir baska sirketin degerleriyle surekli olarak karsilastirarak performans standartlari belirlemektir.

Bilgi: 1) Hakliligi ve gercekligi kanitlanmis inanc. (Nonaka-Takeuchi, 1997). 2) Eyleme gecme kapasitesi. (Sveiby, 1997). 3) Enformasyonun uygulamayla butunlestirilmesiyle kazanilan bir insan yetenegi. 4) Gercekler, enformasyon ve ilkelerin olusturdugu bir butundur, bilinenlerin toplamidir.

Bilgi elde etme: Mevcut bir bilginin derlenmesi veya ele gecirilmesi surecidir. Bilgi, satin alinarak, odunc alinarak ya da calinarak elde edilir.

Bilgi depolama: Organizasyonun degerli bilgisinin, organizasyonun herhangi bir uyesinin herhangi bir yerden, herhangi bir zamanda kolayca ulasabilecegi sekilde kodlanmasi ve muhafaza edilmesidir.

Bilgi mimarisi: Bir organizasyonda herhangi bir calisanin herhangi bir zamanda, herhangi bir yerden kolaylikla ulasabilecegi sekilde duzenlenmis paylasilan bilgi ve kollektif akil deposu. Bireylerin tum ogrendiklerini sistematik bir sekilde derleyen, duzenleyen ve dagitan bir veritabani ve/veya online bulten.

Bilgi transferi: Bilginin organizasyon icinde bireyler ve farkli fonksiyonlardaki gruplar arasinda tasinmasi ve paylasilmasidir. Bu transferler, kisisel olabilecegi gibi mekanik ve elektronik araclarla da gerceklestirilebilir.

Bilgi yaratmak: 1) Beynin yaratici kismini kullanarak ve alisilmis olmayan kavramsal baglantilar kurarak yeni fikirler tasarlamak, yeni dusunceleri kavramaktir. 2) Bulus, onsezi, sorun cozme veya uyarlama yoluyla yeni bilgiler gelistirmektir.

Bilgi Yonetimi: 1) Organizasyonel bilginin ve uzmanligin elde edilmesi, gelistirilmesi ve kullanilmasi yoluyla deger yaratma surecidir. 2) Gorunmeyen varliklari kullanarak deger yaratma sanatidir (Sveiby, 1999). 3) Bilgiyi, organizsyonel performansi artirmak amaciyla yaratma, ele gecirme, paylasma ve kullanma surecidir.

Bireysel yetkinlik: Cok cesitli durumlarda calisanin harekete gecme kapasitesini ifade eder. Calisanin, sunulan urun ve hizmetlerde ve musterilerle olan iliskilerde basarili ya da basarisiz olmasini etkileyen egitim, beceri, deneyim, enerji ve tutumlarin bir sonucudur.

Dis yapi: Organizasyonun disi ile olan tum iliskileridir. Musterilerle, tedarikcilerle, rakiplerle ve diger kuruluslarla olan iliskileri ve organizasyonun imaji gibi varliklari ifade eder.

Egitim: Ogrenenlere genellikle bicimsel ortamlarda egiticiler tarafindan planlanan ve sunulan ve onlara yeni bilgi, beceri ve tutum kazandirmayi amaclayan ogretme deneyimidir.

Entelektuel Kapital 1) Bir sirkette calisanlarin bildigi ve sirkete piyasada rekabetci ustunluk kazandiran herseyin toplamidir. (T. Steward, 1991). 2) Degere donusturulebilen bilgidir. (Edvinson-Sullivan, 1996). 3) Ele gecirilen, bicimlendirilen ve daha yuksek degerde bir varlik yaratmak icin kullanilan entelektuel materyaldir. (L. Prusak, 1994). 4) Diger kapital varliklari bicimlerinden oldukca farkli olan ve gorunmeyen enformasyon ve bilgi varliklaridir. 5) Bir organizasyon icin deger ifade eden ve insan kapitali, yapisal kapital ve musteri kapitalinden olusan bilgidir e- ogrenme (elektronik ogrenme): egitim-ogretme deneyiminin ileri enformasyon teknolojileri kullanilarak, ogrenenin kendi ortaminda, cogu kez hizini ve zamanini kendi ayarlayarak ogrenmesidir. Gorunmeyen varliklar Bir muhasebe terimi olarak, telif haklari, marka, patent, ticari sayginlik (serefiye) gibi fiziksel varligi olmayan degerler bilancoda yer alan gorunmeyen kalemleri ifade eder. Bazen, henuz bilancoda yer almayan diger kalemleri de icerecek sekilde entelektuel kapital ile esanlamli olarak kullanilir.

Gorunmeyen varliklarin yaklasik ticari degeri, sirketin piyasa degeri ile net varliklarinin degeri arasindaki farktir. Dis yapi + Ic yapi + Bireylerin yetkinlikleri = Gorunmeyen varliklardir. Gorunur varliklar Bir muhasebe terimi olarak, bilancoda yer alan ve gozle gorunen ve dokunulabilen para, makine - techizat, bina, stok mallar ve alacaklar gibi varliklardir. Ic yapi Organizasyon olarak isimlendirilen varligi olusturan kultur de dahil olmak uzere herseydir. Patentler, markalar, organizasyon sema ve kilavuzlari, sistemler, surecler, prosedurler ic yapiyi ifade eder. Gorevleri organizasyonun yasamasini saglamak ve uzun donemde varligini ve basarisini korumak ve surdurmek olan yoneticiler de ic yapinin parcasidir. Iletisim araclari Elektronik iletisimi destekleyen telefon, bilgisayar, gorsel - isitsel (video) konferans sistemleri, faks ve benzeri donanimdir. Iletisim surecleri Insanlarin enformasyonu etkili ve verimli bir sekilde paylasmasina olanak saglayan internet, intranet, e-mail gibi enformasyon teknolojisi (ET) ve kulturel sureclerdir.

Insan Kapitali: Organizasyonda calisan bireylerin sahip olduklari bilgiler, yetkinlikler ve tutum ozelliklerinin toplamidir.

Insan kaynaklari degerlemesi : Bir organizasyonda calisan insanlara, bulunduklari konumlarda, gelecekte vermeleri beklenen hizmetlerin ekonomik degerine bagli olarak bir deger belirlemedir.

Insan Kaynaklari Maliyet Muhasebesi: Bir organizasyonun sahip oldugu insan kaynaklarinin dogrudan ve dolayli masraflarinin hesaplanmasi, fon kaynaklarinin tahsis edilmesi, butcelenmesi ve raporlanmasina iliskin tum faaliyetlerdir. Is Sureci Planlanma: Isi olusturan oz (cekirdek) surecleri belirlemek ve daha sonra onlari fonksiyonel bolumlendirmelerden arindirilmis olarak etkili bir bicimde yeniden butunlestirmektir. Operasyonel ve musteri odakli aktiviteleri surecler icinde yeniden yapilandirarak karmasikligi azaltmak ve organizasyonu temel ilkelerine geri goturmektir. Know-How: katma degeri olan enformasyon / bilgi.

Kurumsal Icgudu: Sirketin pazar firsatlarina, musteri isteklerine ve rekabet baskisina aninda ve etkili bir sekilde tepki vermesini saglayan kollektif altinci duyusudur.

Kurumsal Hafiza: Bilgiyi gelecekte kullanmak amaciyla insanlarda ve/veya teknolojilerde gerektiginde geri cagrilabilir sekilde depolamak icin organizasyon bunyesinde kurulan sistemdir. Sirketler de insanlar gibi gecmisi hatirlar, kurumun gelenekleri ve degerleriyle birlikte kullanilan surecleri ve prosedurleri de akilda tutarlar. Hafiza, stratejik anlamda onemlidir. Ancak, organizasyonun gecmise takilip kalmasina ve degisen ortama hizli uyum saglayamamasina neden olursa onemli bir zayiflik da olusturabilir. Matriks Organizasyon: Merkezcil fonksiyonel kontrol ile projeler bazinda merkezcil olmayan yapilanmanin tek bir organizasyon catisi altinda sentezidir. Misyon: 1) Organizasyonun varliginin temel nedenidir. Organizasyonun anlamli ve hakli olarak ne yaptigini ve ne ise yaradigini aciklayan ifadedir. 2) Bir organizasyonun gidecegi yolu gosteren operasyonel, finansal ve etik ilkelerdir. Organizasyonun amaclarini, hayallerini, davranislarini, kulturunu ve stratejilerini ana basliklarla ozetleyen ifadedi.

Musteri Kapitali: Sirketin satis aginin ve satis yaptigi insanlarla ve organizasyonlarla surekliligi olan iliskilerinin degeridir. Musteri, entelektuel kapital unsurlari icinde en onemlisidir. Cunku, faturalari onlar oderler. Ayrica, sirketin finansal sisteminde musteri kapitalinin pazar payi, musteri bagliligi, musteri basina karlilik, sikayet oranlari gibi gostergelerini izlemek oldukca kolaydir.

Organizasyonel Kultur Bir organizasyonda gecerli olan, ortak paylasilan inanclar ve degerler sistemidir. Semboller, sloganlar, kahramanlar, hikayeler, sarkilar ve torenlerle desteklenir.

Organizasyonel Ogrenme: 1) Bir organizasyonda buyume, farklilasma ve gelisme icin yeni anlayislar, yeni bilgi, yeni yapilar, yeni sistemler ve eylemler kazanilmasi ve bu amacla daha onceden ogrenilenlerin terk edilmesidir. 2) Bir organizasyonun kendi cevresine bir anlam verebilmek ve ona tepki gosterebilmek icin kollektif yetenegini harekete gecirdigi surectir.

Outsourcing: Daha once organizasyon icindeki calisanlar tarafindan yerine getirilen fonksiyonlarin yurutulmesini disaridaki uzmanlara birakmak, organizasyonun belirli bir veya birkac isini disaridaki uzman kisi ya da kuruluslara devretmek.

Ogrenen Organizasyon 1) Deneyimlerin surekli test edildigi ve bu deneyimlerin butun organizasyonun ulasabilecegi bir sekilde ve ana amaca uygun olan bilgiye donusturuldugu organizasyondur. 2) Guclu ve kollektif bir sekilde ogrenen ve sirketin basarisi icin bilgiyi daha iyi kullanarak ve yoneterek kendini surekli yenileyen ve donusum gerceklestiren organizasyondur. Organizasyonun icindeki ve disindaki insanlarla calisirken onlari ogrenmeleri icin destekler ve guclendirir. Ogrenme ve uretmeyi en ust duzeye cikarmak icin teknolojiyi etkili bir sekilde kullanir.

Ogrenme (Bireysel): Insanlarin duyu organlariyla ya da sezgileriyle aldiklari uyaricilardan etkilenerek yeni dusunce ve davranislar olusturmalaridir. Kendini gelistirme yolunda ustalasmaktir.

Ortulu Bilgi: Bicimsel olmayan, acik duruma gelmemis bilgi. Ortulu bilginin cok buyuk bir kisminin acik duruma getirilme olanagi bulunmamaktadir. Ipuclarina, icguduye, kisisel sezgiye dayanan know-how’dir.

Sanal Organizasyon: “Duvarlari” ve cok sayida surekli calisani olmayan organizasyondur. Tedarikcilerle, dagiticilarla ve duruma gore degisen isgucu ile surdurulen sozlesmeli iliskilere dayanir.

Temel Yetkinlikler: Bir organizasyonun temel gucunu yansitan mevcut bilgi, yetenek ve kapasitelerinin ozgun bilesimidir.

Uygulama Toplulugu: Bir organizasyonda unvanlarina ve hiyerarsik statulerine gore degil yetenek ve becerilerine gore roller ustlenen insanlarin olusturdugu topluluklar.

Varliklar (Bilgi caginda): Yalnizca fiziksel kaynaklardan degil, ayni zamanda, onlari yaratan insanlarin zekalarinin, yetkinliklerinin ve musterilerle iliskilerinin sonucu olarak ortaya cikan ticari degerlerdir.

Vizyon: Yaratilmak istenilen gelecegin bir resmidir. Vizyon belirlemesi; nereye gitmek istedigimizin ve oraya vardigimizda neye benzeyecegimizin simdi oluyormus gibi, simdiki zaman fiilleriyle anlatilmasi ve gozde canlandirilmasidir.

Yapisal Kapital: Bir organizasyonda calisanlar evlerine gittiklerinde geride kalan bina ve makineler, rutin uygulamalar, enformasyon sistemleri, prosedurler ve surecler, patentler ve benzerleridir.

Yetkinlik: Calisanlarin kendi islerinde basarili performans gostermelerine olanak saglayan kisisel yetenekleri ve beceri birikimleridir.

Yeniden yapilanma (reengineering): Organizasyonun gorevler ve fonksiyonlar degil, surecler ve sonuclar etrafinda yeniden yapilandirilmasidir. Kokten bir yeniden dusunme, degerlendirme ve is sureclerinin yeniden tasarlanmasini gerektirir. Bu calismada mevcut is tasarimlari, organizasyonel yapilar ve yonetim sistemleri bastan sona gozden gecirilir ve isin tumu sonuclara gore yeniden organize edilir.

Telekom Kısaltmaları +

The Telephony Acronyms and Abbreviations List


# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



15M          Fifteen minutes

15S          Fifteen seconds

1CF          Signal party coin first pay-phone

1FAC         Interface packs

1FB          One party flat business rate

1OF          One party official (telco) business line

2SPDT        Partial dial timeout in the second stage of a traditional

              2-stage international

2SPST        Permanent signal timeout in the second stage of

                     traditional 2-stage international

2SVCA        Vacant code in the second stage of a traditional 2-stage

              international outbound

2W           Two wire (pair) (circuit)

2WAY         Two-way trunk groups

300          Log command menu (SARTS command)

376          Log clear (SARTS command)

384          Write log (SARTS command)

385          Read log (SARTS command)

399          Log print (SARTS command)

3KHZ         Three kilohertz

3RNGR        Three ringer

3WO          Third wire open

4W           Four wire (pair) (circuit)

600          Test menu (SARTS command)

600B         600-ohm bridged connection

611          Detail tests (SARTS command)

621          Macro command menu (SARTS command)

631          Automatic test command (SARTS command)

735T         735-ohm compromise termination

?A           Action field contains an error

?D           Data field contains an error

?E           Error exist in the message but can ot be resolved to the

              proper field

?I           Identification field contains an error

?T           Time-out has occurred on channel

?W           Warning message



A            A side (lead) (pair)

A            Area

A            Telephone number or trunk group and member number from


A/B          Two wire phone connection (T&R)

AA           Automated Attendant

AA           Automatic answer

AA           Packet analog access line INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AABS         Automatic alternate billing service

AAE          Auxiliary access equipment

AAR          Automatic alternate routing

AAX          Automated attendant exchange

AB           Packet switch trunk INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

ABATS        Automatic bit access test system

ABATS        Automatic bit access test system (DDS service)

ABC          Automatic bill calling (TSPS)

ABF          Abandon failure

ABF          Abandon failure (MDII)

ABHC         Average busy hour calls

ABL          Auxiliary Buffer order word Left half

ABM          Asynchronous balanced mode ( -> SABME)

ABME         ABM extended

ABR          Auxiliary Buffer order word Right half

ABS          Alternate billing service

ABS          Alternative billing service

ABSBH        Average busy season busy hour

ABT          Abort

ABV          Above

AC           Administrative computer

AC           Alternating current

AC           Assembly code

ACA          Asynchronous communication adapter

ACB          Annoyance call bureau

ACB          Automatic call-back

ACC          Audio communications controller

ACCS         Automated calling card service

ACD          Automatic call distribution

ACD          Automatic call distributor

ACDA         Automatic call disposition analyser

ACDN         Access Directory Number

ACDN         Access directory number

ACE          Assignment change establish

ACE          Automatic calling equipment

ACES         Aris cabs entry system

ACF          Advanced communications functions

ACFA         Advanced CMOS frame aligner peb2030

ACG          Automatic call gap

ACH          Attempt per circuit per hour

ACI          Answer controller interface (IOM2 monitor command)

ACIA         Asynchronous communications interface adapter

ACK          Acknowledge

ACK          No acknowledgment wink

ACK          No acknowledgment wink (MDII)

ACKDB        Acknowledgment database

ACM          Address complete msg. (SS7: in ISUP)

ACOF         Attendant control of facilities

ACP          Action point

ACSE         Association control service element

ACSNET       Academic computing services network

ACSR         Automatic customer station rearrangement

ACSU         Advanced T-1 channel service unit

ACT          AC Testing definition

ACT          AC testing definition

ACT          Activate

ACT          Active

ACT          Auto or automatic circuit transactions

ACTS         Automated coin toll service

ACTV         Activated

ACTVD        Activated

ACU          Alarm control unit

ACU          Automatic calling unit

AD           Attendant INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

ADAP         Audix data acquisition package

ADAS         Advanced directory assistance system

ADC          American digital cellular

ADC          Analog to digital converter

ADCCP        Advanced data communication control procedure

ADCCP        Advanced data communications control procedure

ADCI         Automatic display call indicator

ADD EXP      Address expander

ADDL         Additional

ADDR         Address translations

ADJ          Adjust

ADM          Add-drop multiplex

ADMA         Advanced DMA controller SAB82258

ADN          Abbreviated dialling number

ADP          Automatic diagnostic process.

ADPCM        Adaptive PCM

ADS          Administration of designed services

ADS          Administration of designed services review

ADS          Advanced digital system

ADS          Audio distribution system

ADS          Auxiliary data system

ADSL         Asymmetrically digital subscriber line

ADTS         Automated digital terminal system

ADTS         Automatic data test system

ADTS         Automatic digital terminal system

ADU          Automatic dialling unit

AERM         Alignment error rate monitor

AF           Commercial audio fulltime INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AFACTS       Automatic facilities test system

AFADS        Automatic force adjustment data system

AFE          Analog front end

AFI          Authority and format identifier (ISO 7498)

AFSC         Advanced features service centre

AFSK         Automatic frequency shift keying

AG/EEE       Above ground electronic equipment enclosures

AGC          Automatic gain control

AGENT           A person who answers queued calls

AGM          Normal aging months

AGND         Analog ground

AGT          Accelerated aging type

AI           Activate indication (C/I channel code)

AI           Artificial intelligence

AI           Assigner's initials

AI           Automatic identified outward dialling INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AIC          Agent Identity Code

AIC          Automatic intercept centre

AICC         Automatic intercept communications controller

AIN          Advanced intelligent network

AIOD         Automatic id of outward dialling

AIOD         Automatic identification of outward dialling

AIS          Alarm indication signal

AIS          Alarm indication signals

AIS          Automatic intercept system

AIT          Analit initialisation of tables

AIU          AI upstream

AL           Alternate services INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

ALATS        Automatic loop access system (DDS service)

ALBO         Automatic line buildout

ALE          Address latch enable

ALE          Automatic line evaluation

ALFE         Analog line front end

ALGOL        Algorithmic computer language

ALI          Automatic location identification

ALIT         Automatic line insulation testing

ALL          All events

ALL          All module controller maintenance interrupts

ALL          Turns on all IDs

ALPT         Alarm scan points

ALRM         Alarms

ALRU         Automatic line record update

ALS          Automated list service

AM           Administrative module

AM           Amplitude modulation

AM           Asynchronous multiplexer

AM           Packet

AMA          Automatic Message Accounting

AMA          Automatic message accounting

AMACS        AMA collection system

AMAIRR       Automatic message accounting irregularity

AMALOST      Lost automatic message accounting

AMARC        AMA recent change

AMARC        AMA recording centre

AMASE        AMA standard entry

AMAT         Automatic message accounting transmitter

AMATPS       Automatic message accounting teleprocessing system

AMATPS       Automatic message accounting transmitter teleprocessing system

AMC          Add-on module connector (-> sipb)

AMERITECH    American information technologies

AMI          Alternate mark inversion code

AML          Automatic maintenance limit.

AMP          Advance measurement processor

AMP          Amplifier

AMPS         Advanced mobile phone service

AMR          Automatic meter reading

AMWI         Active message waiting indicator

AN           Announcement service INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AN           Associated number

ANA          Automatic number announcement

ANC          All number calling

ANCT         Analysis control table

ANI          Automatic number identification

ANIF         Automatic number identification failure

ANM          Answer msg. (SS7: in ISUP)

ANS          Answer

ANS          Answer On Bus

ANS          Answer msg.

ANSER        AT&T Network Servicing System (i.e.  via EADAS link )

ANSI         American national standards institute

AO           Allocation order

AO           International/overseas audio (full time) INTER/TRA blocal


AOC          Advice of charge (i.256 B)

AOSS         Auxiliary operator service system

AP           Access point

AP           Application (OSI layer 7)

AP           Application processor

AP           Attached processor

AP           Ancillary processor

AP           Automatic position

AP           Commercial audio (part time) INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AP-PG        Access point page

APC          Alarm processor circuit

APC          Amarc protocol converter

APD          Access point data

APD          Avalanche photo diode

APDB         Access point data base

APDL         Application processor data link

APH          Application protocol handler

API          Application interface

APM          Application processor modules

APPC         Advanced program to program communication (IBM)

APPL1-APPL5  Reserved for application handlers

APS          Automatic position system

APS          Automatic protection switch

APS          Automatic protection switching system

AQ           Autoquote problem.

AR           Activation request (C/I channel code)

AR           Alarm report

AR01         Office alarm - 1AESS alarm message -

AR02         Alarm retired or transferred - 1AESS alarm message -

AR03         Fuse blown - 1AESS alarm message -

AR04         Unknown alarm scan point activated - 1AESS alarm message -

AR05         Commercial power failure - 1AESS alarm message -

AR06         Switchroom alarm via alarm grid - 1AESS alarm message -

AR07         Power plant alarm - 1AESS alarm message -

AR08         Alarm circuit battery loss - 1AESS alarm message -

AR09         AMA bus fuse blown - 1AESS alarm message -

AR10         Alarm configuration has been changed (retired inhibited) - 1AESS

AR11         Power converter trouble - 1AESS alarm message -

AR13         Carrier group alarm - 1AESS alarm message -

AR15         Hourly report on building and power alarms - 1AESS alarm message

ARA          Automatic reservation adjustment

ARC          Administrative responsibility code

ARC          Alternate route cancellation

ARC          Alternate route cancellation control

ARC          Audio response controller

ARCOFI       Audio ringing codec filter

ARCOFI-SP    ARCOFI + speakerphone function

ARCOS        ARCOFI coefficient support program

ARCOTI       SIPB telephone module

ARD          AR downstream

ARG          Alarm reference guide

ARG          Assemble and run a given master file

ARIS         Audichron recorded information system

ARL          Activation request local loop (C/I channel code)

ARM          Activation request maintenance (C/I channel code)

ARM          Asynchronous response mode

ARM          Automatic (Remote test system) maintenance

ARMAR        Automatic request for manual assistance resolution

ARN          Activation request

ARQ          Automatic repeat request

ARR          Automatic ring recovery.

ARS          Alternate route selection

ARS          Automatic route selection

ARSB         Automated repair service bureau

ARSB         Automatic repair service bureau

ARSSI        Automatic route selection screening index

ART          Audible ringing tone

ARU          Activation request upstream

ARU          Audio response unit

ASAP         As soon as possible

ASC          Alarm and status circuit

ASC          Alarm and status circuit.

ASC          Alarm surveillance and control

ASCC2        Advanced serial communication controller

ASCII        American standard code for information interchange

ASCII        American standard code for information interexchange

ASD          Automated SMAS diagnostics

ASDPE        Synchronous data link controller (SDLC) A reset

ASE          Application service element

ASEC         Assignment section

ASGN         Assign

ASGNMTS      Assignments

ASIC         Application specific integrated circuit

ASM          Analog subscriber module

ASOC         Administrative service oversight centre

ASP          Advanced service platform

ASP          Arcofi signal processor

ASPACGCOMP   ASP SCP response message with an ACG component received at

                     the switch

ASPBADRESP   ASP SCP response message received with invalid data

ASPEN        Automatic system for performance evaluation of the network

ASPNORTEMSG  ASP reject message ret err and a play announce receive at

                     the switch from the SCP

ASPSNCOMP    ASP SCP response message with a send notify component

                     received at the switch

ASPTNMSG     ASP termination notification message sent from the switch

                     to the SCP

ASR          Access service request

ASSN         Assignment

AST          Position acknowledge seizure signal time-out (MDII)

ASYNC        Asynchronous

AT           Access tandem

AT           International/overseas audio (part time) INTER/TRA blocal


AT&T         American telephone and telegraph

AT-1         Auto test-1

AT-2         Auto test-2

AT01         Results of trunk test - 1AESS automatic trunk test

ATA          Automatic trunk analysis

ATAB         Area trunk assignment bureau

ATAI         Automatic troubler analysis interface

ATB          All Trunks Busy

ATB          All trunks busy

ATC          Automated testing control

ATC          Automatic transmission control

ATD          Accept date

ATD          Async. TDM

ATH          Abbreviated trouble history

ATI          Automatic test inhibit

ATI          Awake TI

ATICS        Automated toll integrity checking system

ATIS         Automatic transmitter identification system

ATM          Analog trunk module

ATM          Asynchronous transfer mode

ATM          Automatic teller machine

ATMS         Automated trunk measurement system

ATN          Assigner's telephone number

ATO          Time-out waiting for address complete signal

ATP          All tests pass

ATR          Alternate trunk routing

ATRS         Automated trouble reporting system

ATTC         Automatic transmission test and control circuit

ATTCOM       AT&T communications

ATTG         Attendant group

ATTIS        AT&T information system

AU           Access unit

AU           Autoscript INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

AU           Auxiliary

AUD          Assignment list audit

AUD          Audits

AUDIT        Audit detected problem.

AUDIX        Audio information exchange

AUP          Access unit port

AUTO         Automatic

AUTODIN      Automatic digital network

AUTOSEVCOM   Automatic secure voice communications

AUTOVON      Automatic voice network

AUXF         Auxiliary frame

AVD          Alternate voice data

AVD          Alternate voice-data

AWI          Awake indication

AZD          All zeros data



B            B side (pair) (lead)

B            Bridged connection

B            Equipment number

B6ZS         Bipolar with 6 zero substitution

B8ZS         Bipolar eight zero suppression encoding (DS-1)

B8ZS         Bipolar with 8 zeros substitution (T1 pri)

B911         Basic 911

BA           Basic access

BA           Protective alarm (CD) INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

BAF          Blocking acknowledgment failure

BAI          Bridge lifter assignment inquiry

BAL          Balance

BAMAF        Bellcore AMA format

BANCS        Bell administrative network communications system

BANKS        Bell administration network systems

BAPCO        Bellsouth advertising & publishing company

BAS          Basic activity subset

BAT          Battery (-48v)

BAx          Business address x (x = number of line)

BB           Blue box

BBD0/1       Binary 0s or 1s detected in b and d channels

BCC          Bellcore client companies

BCC          Block check character

BCC          Blocked call cleared

BCCP         Bearer ccp

BCD          Binary coded decimal

BCD          Blocked call delayed

BCFE         Busy call forwarding extended

BCID         Business customer identifier

BCLID        Bulk calling line identification

BCMS         Basic call management system

BCS          Batch change supplement (NTI) (DMS-100)

BDCA         Unk

BDCS         Broadband digital cross-connect system

BDS          Basic data service

BDT          Billing data transmitter

BEF          Band elimination filter

BEL          Bell

BELLCORE     Bell communications research

BER          Bit error rate

BERT         Bit error rate test

BETRS        Basic exchange telecommunications radio service

BG           Battery and ground signalling

BG/EEE       Below ground electronic equipment enclosures

BHC          Busy hour call

BHC          Busy hour calls

BIB          Backward indicator bit (SS7)

BICU         Bus interface control unit

BIFIFO       Bidirectional FIFO

BIR          Bit receiver

BIR          Bus interface register

BISDN        Broadband iSDN

BISP         Business information system program

BISYNC       Binary synchronous communications

BIT          Bit

BIT          Bit transmitter

BITNET       Because-it's-time network

BITR         Bit transceiver

BIX          Building internal cross-connects

BK           Back

BKUP         Backup

BKUP         Requests a backup

BL           Bell & lights INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

BL           Bridge lifter

BL           Bridge lifters - COSMOS command

BL/DS        Busy line/don't answer

BLA          Blocking acknowledgment (SS7: in ISUP)

BLF          Busy line field

BLFCA        Blocking a fully coded addressed international outbound

                     call to a non-common channel signalling trunk

BLK          Block

BLKD         Blocked

BLO          Blocking (SS7: in ISUP)

BLS          Bridge lifter status

BLS          Business listing service

BLV          Busy line verification

BMC          Billing media coverage

BMD          Batch mode display

BMI          Batch mode input - TIMEREL and DEMAND

BMOSS        Building maintenance operations service system

BMR          Batch mode release

BMU          Basic measurement unit (dip)

BND          Band number

BNS          Billed number screening

BNSDBOV      BVA BNS message received indicating data base overload

BNSDBUN      BVA BNS message returned because data base unable to


BNSGMSG      BVA BNS message received garbled

BNSNBLK      BVA BNS message returned because of network blockage

BNSNCON      BVA BNS message returned because of network congestion

BNSNRTE      BVA BNS message returned because of no routing data

BNSTOUT      BVA BNS message returned because of timeout

BNSUNEQ      BVA BNS message returned because of unequipped destination

BNSURPY      BVA BNS message received with an unexpected reply

BNx          Business name x (x = number of line)

BOC          Bell operating companies

BOC          Bell operating company

BOCC         Building operations control centre

BOP          Byte oriented protocol

BOR          Basic output report

BORSCHT      Battery

BOS          Bit oriented signalling

BOS          Business office supervisor

BOSS         Billing and order support system

BOSS         Business office service system (NYNEX)

BOT          Beginning of tape

BOT          Bottom

BPI          Bits per inch

BPOC         Bell point of contact

BPS          Bits per second

BPSK         Binary psk

BPSS         Basic packet-switching service

BPUMP        Backup pump

BR           Bit robbing (CAS-BR)

BRAT         Business residence account tracking system

BRCF         Business and residential customer service feature

BRCS         Business and residential customer services

BRCS         Business residence custom service

BRDCST       Broadcast

BRDG         Bridge

BRDGD        Bridged

BREVC        Brevity control

BRG          Baud rate generator

BRI          Basic rate interface

BRITE        Basic rate interface transmission extension (5ESS)

BRK          Break

BRM          Basic remote module

BRM          Bell communications research practice

BRST         Bridge signature table

BS           Backspace

BS           Banded signalling

BS           Bias battery (-19.1v)

BS           Siren control INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

BSA          Basic serving arrangements

BSBH         Busy season busy hour

BSC          Business service centre

BSC/RSC      Business/residence service centre

BSCM         Bisynchronous communications module

BSDPE        SDLC B reset

BSE          Basic service elements

BSF          Bell shock force

BSI          British standards institution

BSN          Backward sequence number (SS7)

BSOC         Bell systems operating company

BSP          Bell system practice

BSRF         Basic standard reference frequency

BSRFS        Bell system reference frequency standard

BST          Basic services terminal

BSTJ         Bell system technical journal

BT           British telecom

BTAM         Basic telecommunications access message

BTH          Both

BTL          Bell telephone laboratories

BTN          Billing telephone number

BTSR         Bootstrapper board

BTU          British thermal unit

BUFF         System buffers (NTI)

BVA          Billing validation application

BVAPP        Billing verification and authorisation for payment process

BVC          Billing validation centre

BVS          Basic voice service

BWM          Broadcast warning message

BWT          Broadcast warning TWX

BWTS         Bandwidth test set

BYF          Display the bypass file

BYP          Change the contents of the bypass file



C            Counting rate

C            Current supervision

C            Scan point (SP)

C&A          Centrifugal and absorption

C-ACD        Commercial-automatic call distributor (OSPS)

C-NCH        C-notch

C/I          Command/indicate

C/S UNIT     Combiner and splitter

C1           Circuit system

CA           Cable

CA           Cable number

CA           Collision avoidance

CA           SSN access INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

CABS         Carrier access billing system

CAC          Calling-card authorisation centre

CAC          Carrier access code

CAC          Circuit administration centre

CAC          Customer administration centre

CACHE        Cache errors

CAD          Computer-aided dispatch

CAD          Critical alarm display

CADN         Circuit administration.

CADV         Combined alternate data/voice

CAF          Circuit reset acknowledgment failure

CAFD         Comptrollers' automatic message accounting format


CAFD         Controllers automatic message accounting format


CAI          Address incomplete received

CAI          Call assembly index

CAIS         Collocated automatic intercept system

CALRS        Centralised automatic loop reporting system

CAM          Communication access method

CAM          Computer aided manufacturing

CAM          Content addressable memory

CAM          Control administration module

CAMA         Central automatic message accounting.

CAMA         Centralised auto message accounting

CAMA         Centralised automatic message accounting

CAN          Cancel

CANC         Cancel (i.451)

CANF         Clear the cancel from

CANT         Clear the cancel to

CAP          Capacitance

CARL         Computerised administrative route layout

CAROT        Centralised automatic reporting on trunks

CAROT        Centralised automatic reporting on trunks.

CAS          Cannel associated signalling

CAS          Circuit associated signalling

CAS          Computerised autodial system

CAS          Craft access system (SARTS)

CAS          Customer account service

CAS7ABM      CAS common channel signalling 7 (CCS7) abort message


CAS7ACG      CAS CCS7 ACG invoke component received

CAS7GMG      CAS CCS7 received with invalid format reply

CAS7GWE      CAS CCS7 error

CAS7NCG      CAS CCS7 message returned because of network congestion

CAS7NFL      CAS CCS7 message returned because of network failure

CAS7RCR      CAS CCS7 reject component received

CAS7SCG      CAS CCS7 message returned because of subsystem congestion

CAS7SFL      CAS CCS7 message returned because of subsystem failure

CAS7TAN      CAS CCS7 message returned

CAS7TOT      CAS CCS7 query which timed out before reply received

CASDBOV      CAS message received indicating data base overload

CASDBOV      Customer account services (CAS) message received

                     indicating data base overload

CASDBOV      Customer account services (CAS) message received

                     indicating database overload

CASDBUN      CAS message returned

CASGMSG      CAS message received garbled

CASNBLK      CAS message returned because of network blockage

CASNCON      CAS message returned because of network congestion

CASNRTE      CAS message returned because of no routing data

CASTOUT      CAS message returned because of timeout

CASUNEQ      CAS message returned because of unequipped destination

CASURPY      CAS message received with an unexpected reply

CAT          Centrex access treatment

CAT          Craft access terminal

CATLAS       Centralised automatic trouble locating and analysis system

CAY          Create an assembly

CB           OCC audio facilities INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

CBA          Change back acknowledgment (SS7: in mtp)

CBD          Change back declaration (SS7: in mtp)

CBEMA        Computer and business equipment manufacturers' assc.

CBERR        Correctable bit error

CBS          Crossbar switching

CBX          Computerised branch exchange

CC           Call count

CC           Central control

CC           Central controller

CC           Common channel (CAS-CC)

CC           Common control

CC           Connection confirm

CC           Country code

CC           Country code (ISO 7498)

CC           Initials of person closing report out to catlas.

CC           OCC digital facility-medium speed INTER/TRA blocal 1-26

CC1          Call control 1 (IOS)

CCA          Change customer attributes

CCA          Computer content architecture (ISO 8

Call Center Kısaltmaları +

ACD    Automatic Call Distributor
ACS    Automatic Call Sequencer
ACW    After Call Work
AHT    Average Handling Time
AHT    Average Holding Time on Trunks
ANI    Automatic Number Identification
ARU    Audio Response Unit
ASA    Average Speed of Answer
ATA    Average Time to Abandonment
ATB    All Trunks Busy
BRI    Basic Rate Interface
CCR    Customer Controlled Routing
CCS    Centum Call Seconds
CD-ROM    Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CED    Caller Entered Digits
CIO    Chief Information Officer
CLI    Calling Line Identity
CO    Central Office
CPE    Customer Premises Equipment
DN     Dialed Number
DNIS    Dialed Number Identification Service
FX     Foreign Exchange Line
GOS    Grade of Service
IS     Information Systems
ISDN     Integrated Services Digital Network
IT    Information Technology
IVR     Interactive Voice Response
IXC    Inter Exchange Carrier
LAN    Local Area Network
LEC     Local Exchange Carrier
LED    Light Emitting Diode
MAC    Moves, Adds and Changes
NCC     Network Control Center
NPA     Numbering Plan Area
OCR     Optical Character Recognition
PABX    Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PBX     Private Branch Exchange
PRI     Primary Rate Interface
PSN     Public Switched Network
PUC    Public Utility Commission
RAN     Recorded Announcement Route
RFI     Request for Information
RFP     Request for Proposal
RSF    Rostered Staff Factor
TAPI     Telephony Applications Programming Interface
TCP/IP     Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TSAPI     Telephony Services Application Programming Interface
TSF    Telephone Service Factor
TSR    Telephone Sales or Service Representative
UCD     Uniform Call Distributor
VRU     Voice Response Unit
WAN     Wide Area Network
WATS    Wide Area Telecommunications Service
WWW     World Wide Web

İnternet Reklamcılığı Terimleri +

Genel Terimler

Zenginleştirilmiş Medya Uygulamaları ( Rich media ads )
Neredeyse tüm internet reklam kampanyalarında kullanılan Zenginleştirilmiş Medya Uygulamaları terimi, yüksek kaliteli animasyon, duraksız ses ve video, oyunlar, formlar gibi banner ve benzeri reklam uygulamalarına denmektedir. Başlarda Java, Javascript, Flash, Shockwave ve DHTML’le yapılan Zenginleştirilmiş Medya Uygulamaları’nın bugün neredeyse tamamı Flash’la yapılmaktadır.

Tıklanma ( Click Through ) 
Tıklanma; herhangi bir internet reklamının kullanıcılar tarafından tıklanmasına denir. Kullanıcı, reklama tıkladığında başka bir web sayfasına yönlendirilir. Kullanıcı, her reklama tıkladığında tıkladığı reklam için 1 unite tıklanma kaydedilir.

Görüntülenme ( Impression )
Görüntülenme; herhangi bir internet reklamının kullanıcılar tarafından görüntülenmesine denir. Kullanıcı, her yeni sayfa açtığında, görüntülediği reklam için 1 ünite görüntülenme kaydedilir.

Tıklanma Oranı ( CTR : Click Through Rate )
Tıklanma oranı; internet reklamını tıklayan kullanıcıların, görüntüleyen kullanıcılara oranıdır. Toplam tıklanma bölü (/) toplam görüntülenme şeklinde hesaplanır.

Bir banner reklamını 1.000.000 kişi görüntülediyse fakat sadece 100.000 kişi tıkladıysa, banner’ın “Tıklanma oranı” \%10′dur.

100.000 / 1.000.000 = 0.1 = \%10

Dönüşüm ( Conversion ) 
Dönüşüm; herhangi bir internet reklamı aracılığıyla ( Banner, akıllı linkler, arama motoru reklamları vb. ) reklamverenin sitesine gelen ziyaretçinin, reklamveren tarafından belirlenen aktiviteyi gerçekleştirmesine denir. Bu aktivite; site üyeliği, bülten aboneliği, satın alma vb. aktiviteler olabilir.

Dönüşüm Oranı ( Conversion Rate ) 
Dönüşüm oranı; reklamveren tarafından önceden belirlenen aktiviteyi gerçekleştiren ziyaretçilerin, dış reklama tıklayarak siteye gelen tüm ziyaretçilere yüzdesel oranıdır. Toplam dönüşüm bölü (/) toplam ziyaretçi şeklinde hesaplanır.

Reklamveren tarafından, dönüşümün “site üyeliği” olarak tanımlandığını farzedelim. Bir banner reklamına tıklayarak 1.000.000 kişi siteyi ziyaret etti fakat sadece 100.000 kişi üye olduysa, bu banner’ın “Dönüşüm oranı” \%10′dur.

100.000 / 1.000.000 = 0.1 = \%10

Tüm Network Üzeri Yayın ( RON : Run Of Network ) 
Banner veya benzeri internet reklam formatlarının; web sitesi veya sayfa hedeflemesi yapılmadan, belirlenen bir web siteleri ağının, tüm site ve sayfalarında yayınlanması demektir.

Tüm Site Üzeri Yayın ( ROS : Run Of Site ) 
Banner veya benzeri internet reklam formatlarının; sayfa hedeflemesi yapılmadan, belirlenen bir web sitesinin tüm sayfalarında yayınlanması demektir.

Reklam Sunucusu ( Adserver ) 
Reklam sunucusu, banner’ların yayınlanacakları web sitesindeki önceden belirlenmiş alana yerleştirilmelerini, görüntülenme ve tıklanma gibi analitik bilgilerin takibini sağlayan kullanıcı arayüzüne sahip sunucudur.

İnternet Reklam Maliyetleri Terimleri

Görüntülenme Başına Maliyet ( CPM : Cost Per Mile -Thousand Impressions- )
Reklamverenin, görüntülenme başına ödeme yaptığı sistemdir. İnternet reklamı , kullanıcılar tarafından 1000 kez görüntülendiğinde, bu 1 ünite olarak sayılır ve reklam bu ünite üzerinden fiyatlandırılır.


Tıklanma Başına Maliyet ( CPC : Cost Per Click )
Reklamverenin, tıklanma başına ödeme yaptığı sistemdir. Bir site üzerinde bulunan reklam formatlarına her tıklandığında yapılan ücretlendirmedir. Tıklanma başına maliyet, web sitesi ziyaretçi sayısı, reklamın görüntülenme oranı vb. üzerine belirlenmez.


Aksiyon Başına Maliyet ( CPL : Cost per Lead / CPA: Cost per Action > Her ikisi de aynıdır )
Kullanıcının, internet reklamına tıklayarak siteye geldiğinde reklamveren tarafından tanımlanmış aktiviteyi gerçekleştirmesinde alınan ücrettir. Bu aktiviteler, e-bülten aboneliği, site üyeliği vb. kullanıcının siteye belirli bir bilgiyi kayıt etmesinden oluşur. Satın alma, para transferleri gibi işlemler bu maliyet türüne dahil değildir.


Satın Alma Başına Maliyet ( CPA : Cost Per Acqusition ) 
Kullanıcının, internet reklamına tıklayarak siteye geldiğinde reklamveren tarafından tanımlanmış “satın almayı” gerçekleştirmesinde alınan ücrettir. Satın alma, para transferleri gibi işlemler bu maliyet türüne dahildir.

> İnternet Reklam Fiyatları hakkında detaylar için tıklayın

Arama Motoru Pazarlama / Optimizasyon Terimleri

Arama Motoru Pazarlama ( SEM : Search Engine Marketing )
“Arama motoru pazarlama”; Google vb. arama motorları sonuç sayfaları üzerinde ,açık arttırma sistemiyle “anahtar kelimeler” seçerek, ücretli reklam verme uygulamasıdır. Amacı, web sitenize arama motorlarından ziyaretçi çekerek, hizmet ve ürünlerizi pazarlamaktır. Arama motoru pazarlamanın en önemli aracı, Google’ın sundugu AdWords programıdır.

Arama Motoru Optimizasyonu ( SEO: Search Engine Optimization ) 
“Arama motoru optimizasyonu”; arama motorlarında ücretsiz / doğal sıralanma listelerinde üst sıralarda yer alabilmek için yapılan optimizasyon çalışmasıdır. Arama Motoru Optimizasyonu, pek çok yöntemden oluşur ve temel olarak web sitenizi optimize ettiğiniz anahtar sözcüklerle arama motorunun organik sonuçlarında üst sıralara taşıma tekniğidir.

Arama Motoru Dostu Web Sitesi ( Search Engine Friendly Website ) 
Arama motorlarının yazılımları tarafından kolaylıkla kaydedilen ( indekslenebilen ) web sitelerine “Arama Motoru Dostu Web Sitesi” denir. Arama Motoru Dostu site tasarım ve uyguylaması hayli geniş çaplı ve profesyonel deneyim gerektiren bir uygulamadır.

Google Analytics Terimleri

Google Analytics
Google Analytics, web siteleri ile ilgili istatistiksel bilgilere hızlı ve kolayca ulaşımı sağlayan web site performans analiz yazılımıdır. Ayrıca, reklam kampanyalarının raporlarında gösterim ve tıklama dışında çok detaylı raporlara Google Analytics kullanarak ulaşabilmek mümkündür.

Google Analytics’in getirdiği avantajlardan bazıları, aşağıda tanımlanan istatistiklere kolayca ulaşım sağlamasıdır:

Tekil Ziyaretçiler ( Unique visitors )
Web sitesine bir veya daha fazla ziyarette bulunan her bir “gerçek kullanıcı” sayısıdır. Siteyi ziyaret eden her bir IP adresi bir tekil ziyaretçi sayılır.

Sayfa Görüntülenme ( Page Views ) 
Web sitesi sayfalarının belirli bir zaman aralığında toplam görüntülenme sayısıdır.

Averaj Sayfa Görüntülenme ( Pages Per Visit )
Her bir tekil ziyaretçinin, web sitesinde görüntülediği toplam sayfa adedine göre, bir ziyaretçinin sitede ortalama kaç sayfa gezdiğinin sayısıdır.

Sosyal Medya Pazarlama / Optimizasyon Terimleri

Sosyal Medya Pazarlama ( SMM : Social Media Marketing )
“Sosyal Medya Pazarlama”, Facebook, Twitter, Myspace vb. sosyal medyalar üzerinde uygulanan ve sitenize ziyaretçi çekmek icin yapılan pazarlama çalışmalarıdır. Sosyal medya pazarlamanın amacı, hedef kitleyle iletişim kurmak, geri dönüş almak, marka bilinirliğini arttırmak, hedef kitleyi ve rakipleri takip etmek, gündem yaratmak, konuşulmak, network oluşturmak, katılımı teşvik etmek, müşteri ilişkilerini geliştirmek, destek vermek, pazarlama maliyetleri düşürmek ve satışları arttırmak olarak açıklanabilir.

Sosyal Medya Optimizasyon ( SMO : Social Media Optimization )
“Sosyal Medya Optimizasyonu” bir web sitesinin optimize edilerek ihtiva ettiği bilgilerin ve içeriği sosyal medya mecralarına ve kullanıcılarınca çevrimiçi topluluklara kolayca yayılmasını sağlamak işlemidir. Siteniz üzerinde gerçekleştirdiğiniz ve sosyal medya üzerinden size trafik sağlayacak işlemler olarak “Sosyal Medya Optimizasyonu” olarak tanımlanabilir. SMO’nun en basit örneği bugün internette hemen her sitede görülen “paylaş” vb. simgeleridir.